For organizational leader ship with the University of Charleston WV. I am requesting assistance with writing a 9 to 12 page essay on Admiral Chester W Nimitz using APA space seven format. I will be g

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For organizational leader ship with the University of Charleston WV. I am requesting assistance with writing a 9 to 12 page essay on Admiral Chester W Nimitz using APA space seven format.

I will be graded on my critical thinking; the ability to state my position and provide an event in my leaders life (before they made their decision) that supports my position.

I have attached the following:

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-Template and discussion questions use for final key assignment (explanation of key assignment and all of my discussion questions for the final essay).





For organizational leader ship with the University of Charleston WV. I am requesting assistance with writing a 9 to 12 page essay on Admiral Chester W Nimitz using APA space seven format. I will be g
UNIVERSITY OF CHARLESTON WV 2021SU Practicum: Assessing Culture (ORGL-435-03BN) PROVIDE AN ABSTRACT You will be graded on your critical thinking: the ability to state your position and provide an event in your leader’s life (before they made their decision) that supports your position. This is not a history lesson, nor is it a biography. Be sure your cover page includes the course number and name, your name, date, and your professor’s name. The 9-12 pages does not include your cover page and reference page. The bulk of your emphasis should be on strengths and weaknesses (the traits that made your leader effective and the traits that made your leader ineffective), ethics, your analysis of that decision, and especially the lessons you learned from this research. Spend very little time in your paper on the background and the situation; we already know about it from your Week 2 DQ. This is not a biography, therefore utilize your critical thinking skills to explain why your leader’s actions caused the result they did. The lessons you learned and how you can apply those lessons to improve your own leadership acumen will carry the most weight. I cannot stress enough that you need to cite your sources. Your analysis/position/conclusion will not be found in your research; if you do find that one of your references stated that your leader was , that will be that author’s position and not yours. The events that your research reveals is the evidence that you will use to support your position. (Note: Please use headings for the sections below. They correspond to each seminar’s discussions, discussion questions and journals). The situation This is the situation that you are exploring; the situation that your case study focuses on. Give us enough detail to understand what happened, yet not too much to overwhelm us. Don’t make us think about what is important – that is providing too much detail. You want us to be able to remember the situation as we read the remainder of your paper. Be sure to cite your sources. Leadership strengths and weaknesses This is the section where you identify the strengths of your leader (those traits that made your leader effective), along with their character traits that worked against them (made them ineffective). Think of the leaders in “How the Mighty Fall” and use those steps in either the positive or the negative manner. You can also go to and for additional traits. You must supply more than one strength and more than one weakness. Ethics and community What ethical boundaries did your leader come close to or cross – or which ones did they hold fast to? How did these actions affect the community in which they live and work? Be sure to explain the results of their ethical or unethical actions. Conjecture about “had they done this ….” or other such thoughts should be in the Results and lessons learned section. Organizational Culture What about their organization (or the environment in which your leader operated) permitted / inhibited / promoted or otherwise had an effect or an influence on the situation and the leader’s actions? Was there no check-and-balance? Was the culture more authoritarian and less participative? Were employees (including upper level management) concerned about retaliations if they spoke up? Decision Making How did their traits and ethics influence the decision they made? This section is a shorter section (you have already provided evidence for your analyses) and is a summary of their traits and ethics. Your emphasis should be on the traits and what role those traits played in the decision they made. Using your critical thinking skills, analyze their decisions and state why you believe they took the action they did. Provide evidence for both the decision and your reasoning. Be sure to cite your sources. My overall conclusion Based on your research and analysis, answer these three questions: Was your leader effective in this situation? Why or why not? Which strength or trait of theirs was the strongest, and what effect did it have this decision? How will you incorporate #2 into your leadership acumen? WEEK 2 NOTE: One of the topics we will discuss your case study research and what makes it different than action research. Do not go into your case study with a view of ‘trying to prove’ or support your current view. Go into it with an open mind and let your research take you where it does. Be sure to keep in mind both your leader and the situation – the two of them together make up your case study. This is not a biography of your leader – this is the connection between the leader’s actions, the culture they created, ethics, and the situation they found themselves in. Please review both critical thinking articles in the news forum. We will discuss how these can be applied to your work environment and to your case study. Your overall grade will be based on your critical thinking skills, demonstrated by the questions you ask, your analysis of your leader and their specific situation, and the conclusions you state. MY ANSWER BELOW:     The leader that I have chosen to do my research on is Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz and his decisions during his time serving as a Naval Officer. During World War II, there were two significant fronts of the war. The European war front where allied forces fought Germany and the Asia-Pacific war front. This war is where America got involved in World War II after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, and Admiral Nimitz was selected to be the Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet. During his earlier career, he commanded submarines and other naval vessels. Admiral Nimitz’s ability to strategize, organizational skills, military requirement foresight, who took plenty of calculated risks, made him one of the most extraordinary Naval Officers of the 20th century.              During the Coral Sea battle, Admiral Nimitz had limited enemy intelligence that he and his commanders came up with a strategy that eventually defeated the Japanese. Winning this battle was a catalyst that led the Americans and our allies to win the battle of Midway and numerous battles before the war ended in September of 1945.  I hope to understand how Admiral Nimitz became an effective commander for the entire Asian-Pacific theatre and how World War II would have been shaped if Admiral Nimitz was not in charge.   References   Potter, E. B. (2013). Nimitz. Naval Institute Press. GOOGLE BOOKS Nimitz – Google Books Week 3 Discussion Question The following question is designed to help you think critically about the research you have done so far. Use the subject line to describe the main point of your post. Be sure to use APA in your citations. Answer this question individually and then respond to the answers of your classmates. Based on your preliminary research – name one strength (a trait that made your leader effective) and one weakness (a trait that made your leader ineffective) of the leader you are researching. Provide a specific event or incident to support your conclusion. MY ANSWER BELOW: Leadership Strength   Chester W. Nimitz was widely renowned for his leadership skills. Throughout his career in the United States Navy, he was the skillful leader of the Pacific Fleet. He lived up to many of the leadership traits that made great men rise into extraordinary legends. With all of the positive characteristics, I must say it is his humility that made him an effective leader. When he was attending the Naval Academy, he purchased beer at a local shop off base. Being a young man wanting to unwind, he decided to buy beer from a local store off base. Later on, he found himself staring at the same gentlemen he purchased the beer from at the store, none other than LtCmdr Levi Cavin Bertolette Naval Academy reporting for duty. Nimitz stated that escapadeZtaught him how to behave for the remainder of the academy. That incident also taught him to look with lenient and tolerant eyes for first-time offenders when he became Commanding Officer holding mast (Nimitz, 2013, p. 55). A leader must have the trust and confidence in their people, so their team understands that they are with the right team, are safe to make mistakes, and enjoy working towards a common goal.   Leadership Weakness   With all of Admiral Nimitz’s accomplishments and accolades throughout his illustrious naval career, it was hard to find any faults or weaknesses with him. His weakness, which can also be his strength, would be his relentless work ethic (workaholic). After reading countless stories, he constantly innovates (diesel engines for submarines, NROTC). He strategizes to ensure he and his men, whether aboard a ship or submarine, had the upper hand to be successful. Admiral Nimitz’s drive to think and sleep about military operations all day can favor the services, but how much of his time is he spending with his family before retiring from the Navy in 1957?   References   Potter, E. B. (2013). Nimitz. Google Books. Week 4 Discussion Question What effect did the leader’s actions have on the community? What ethical lines were crossed or breached, and which ones were upheld? MY ANSWER BELOW: What effect did the leader’s actions have on the community?  After Admiral Nimitz signed Japan’s surrender in Tokyo Bay aboard the battleship Missouri on September 2, 1945, he and two years later, he and his wife moved to the Claremont Hotel in Berkeley, CA. He had a lasting impact on the community of the Bay Area, in 1948, Governor Earl Warren appointed him to the University of California’s Board of Regents for eight years, where he and his board members establish the university’s policies, admissions, future build locations, and contracting with private companies ( What ethical lines were crossed or breached, and which ones were upheld? The only ethical lines Admiral Nimitz crossed or breached were waging war on his adversaries. Depending on the individual’s belief can be viewed as ethical on unethical, but it is necessary to preserve our freedoms and way of life. He held himself to the highest military standards. His decision-making, forward-thinking, willingness to take calculated risks kept the United States from meeting its fate by defeating Japan in the Pacific. References Berkeley historical plaque project – Nimitz, Chester – Admiral. (n.d.). Berkeley Historical Plaque Project. Week 5 Discussion Question How do the Universal Intellectual Standards and other critical thinking questions strengthen your argument or your position in your leader research and in your real-world environment? Give an example to support your position. Please reply to two others.  MY ANSWER BELOW: Paul and Elder stated, “thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced” (p. 2). When arguing and defending your statement, it is your opinion and may not be factual unless you can prove through research and critical thinking that your information is accurate. This process will build your credibility and gain the trust of your audience. For my research, I want to state what led my leader to make the right decisions and avoid mistakes. My work must be clear, accurate (precise and relevant), in-depth, breadth, and significant (fair), or the reader will be confused and left with unanswered questions (Paul & Elder, 2020, p. 3). Nimitz was left with the burden of making decisions that affected him, his crew, and the U.S. Naval operations in the Pacific. Paul and Elder (2020) nine intellectual standards checklist will guide me on my research and final paper. This process translates to real-world situations every time I  conduct daily operations within my organization and allows me to lead subordinates. Therefore, they are not confused about the mission and my expectations.  References Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2020). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools: Vol. 8th edition. The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
For organizational leader ship with the University of Charleston WV. I am requesting assistance with writing a 9 to 12 page essay on Admiral Chester W Nimitz using APA space seven format. I will be g
Battle of the Coral Sea: A Strategic Turning Point in World War II Here’s What You Need to Know: Such confusion existed on both sides during the battle that naval historian Samuel Eliot Morison labeled Coral Sea the “Battle of Naval Errors.” World War II was less than six months old when the American public, already stunned by the debacles at Pearl Harbor and Guam, faced one of its darkest moments. Thousands of miles across the Pacific, the American commander in the Philippines, Maj. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright, surrendered to the Japanese. “With broken heart and head bowed in sadness but not in shame,” he radioed on May 6 to President Franklin D. Roosevelt from his bastion at Corregidor, “I report to your excellency that today I must arrange terms for the surrender of the fortified islands of Manila Bay.” But the tides of war often turn dramatically. Within 72 hours, American ships, planes, and sheer guts would turn gloom and despair into optimism and hope in a little-known portion of the South Pacific. The naval encounter in the Coral Sea, the lustrous waters bordering Australia’s northeast coast, would knock the Japanese back on their heels and give both the American public and its military cause to celebrate. The Japanese steamed into the Coral Sea with every reason to believe that another success lay before them. They had triumphed everywhere in the Pacific since December 7, 1941, when they had administered a crushing blow to ill-prepared American naval units at Pearl Harbor. What could possibly halt them now? Intercepting the Japanese Plans Three Japanese naval forces converged on the Coral Sea. A left arm under Rear Admiral Kujohide Shima, featuring one minelayer, two destroyers, a transport, and various smaller craft, would seize the small island of Tulagi off Guadalcanal’s northern coast in the Solomon Islands for use as a seaplane base. At the same time, Rear Admiral Sadamichi Kajioka’s right arm of 12 troop transports, escorted by the new light carrier Shoho and four heavy cruisers, would advance south from Rabaul, steam through Jomard Passage in the Louisiades, and seize Port Moresby on the southeast coast of New Guinea. This bold thrust would place Japanese forces within easy range of Australia itself and threaten vital American supply lines to the distant Allied nation. To the east of the Coral Sea, Vice Admiral Takao Takagi led two carriers, Shokaku and Zuikaku, proud veterans of Pearl Harbor, escorted by two heavy cruisers and six destroyers, to intercept any American naval force trying to halt the Port Moresby invasion. Most Japanese commanders doubted that any American carriers remained in the region. They fully expected to achieve their objectives before the United States could mount an effective answer. The United States, however, was more aware of the unfolding events than the Japanese realized. Due to the tireless efforts of American code breakers, analysts could read up to 15 percent of the Japanese JN-25 code, their most widely used code. Radio analysis plotted Japanese movements by studying the location, volume, and pattern of intercepted messages, giving Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet, vital information on enemy troop movements. By early April, the Navy’s intelligence team at Pearl Harbor under Lt. Cmdr. Joseph J. Rochefort was able to provide Nimitz with details of the Japanese plans for the Coral Sea offensive. Rochefort estimated that the Japanese had no intention of invadeing Australia itself, but that they would shortly launch an operation to seize the eastern end of New Guinea. This move would be quickly followed by a vast operation in the Pacific that would involve most of the Combined Fleet. The news greatly concerned Nimitz, whose capabilities were hampered by the absence of Admiral William Halsey and two carriers, then taking part in the Doolittle air raid of mainland Japan. At a time when he most needed every resource at his disposal, a key component of Nimitz’s air arm was busy on a bombing raid against Tokyo. He had two remaining carriers to deploy, but if he committed them to the Coral Sea, he left an unprotected Pearl Harbor open to further attack. Nimitz’s intelligence officer, Commander Edward T. Layton, reassured him that no enemy naval forces were steaming toward Hawaii. Nimitz decided to gamble. The enemy may have more powerful forces to commit to battle, but Nimitz knew their plans in advance and thus had the element of surprise on his side. He could place his ships at optimum positions to halt the Japanese advance. The Race to the Coral Sea On April 25, Nimitz met in San Francisco with Admiral Ernest King, commander of the U.S. Fleet and chief of naval operations. King and Nimitz both worried that Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, who commanded the two available aircraft carriers, was too timid, but they doubted that the more aggressive Halsey would return from the Doolittle Raid in time to be involved in the coming action. Called “Whiskey Jack,” Fletcher was aboard the carrier Yorktown when his orders arrived. He was to rendezvous with Rear Admiral Aubrey Fitch’s TF-11, anchored by the carrier Lexington, 300 miles south of Tulagi at a position called Point Buttercup. There they were to join four cruisers coming from Australia under Australian Admiral Sir John Crace and halt the Japanese, even though Fletcher commanded a mere half of the firepower his opponent could bring to bear. As Fletcher churned to the Coral Sea, Halsey returned from his raid. On April 25, he entered Pearl Harbor with Hornet and Enterprise, only to learn that he would soon be on his way to the South Pacific. He was to depart no later than April 30 and race 3,500 miles across the Pacific to the Coral Sea. If Halsey arrived in time to participate in the battle, he would be the senior commander and would take charge of all four carriers, including Fletcher’s Yorktown and Lexington. Halsey was six days away from the Coral Sea. On May 3, the Japanese occupied Tulagi, and Fletcher hurried north on his own rather than rendezvousing with Fitch or Crace. This bold move divided his forces, leaving him vulnerable to a strong Japanese attack, but luck was on his side as a massive cold front containing rain squalls and winds up to 35 knots hid him from enemy search planes. “Some Fun!” Twelve Devastator torpedo planes and 28 Dauntless dive-bombers lifted off Yorktown shortly after 7 am on May 4, flying without fighter protection, which Fletcher needed to hold back in case the carrier was attacked. An hour later, Lt. Cmdr. William O. Burch led the bombing raid against Tulagi. Most of the Dauntlesses’ bombs fell wide of their marks, in part because their windows and gun sights had fogged over when the planes dropped from cooler temperatures in the upper altitudes to the warmer climes below. The Devastators proved ineffective as well, hitting only one minesweeper with 11 torpedoes. Two subsequent runs produced similarly disappointing results, with most bombs hitting far from their targets. Fletcher, encouraged by accounts that his aviators had innocently exaggerated, reported to Nimitz that he had sunk two enemy destroyers, three gunboats, and a cargo ship and damaged several others. “Some fun!” he told Nimitz. His commander radioed back: “Congratulations and well done to you and your force. Hope you can exploit your success with augmented force.” Fletcher, in truth, had inflicted only minor damage. The Japanese lost the destroyer Kikuzuki, two light minesweepers, and a merchant minesweeper. The air attack on Tulagi spurred the Japanese to action as they now knew, much to their consternation, that at least one American carrier was operating in the area. In response, the Japanese sent Admiral Takagi with Shokaku and Zuikaku from Rabaul, escorted by two heavy cruisers, around the eastern end of the Solomons into the Coral Sea. They had one thought in mind—find and destroy the American carriers. For two days the opposing forces scoured the Coral Sea without success, coming within 70 miles of each other on May 6 without realizing it. One Japanese land-based search plane sighted and correctly reported Fletcher’s position that day, but that resulted in no response when the report was routed through Rabaul instead of directly to Takagi. Drawing Off the Japanese Attack Fletcher and Takagi sent search planes out again on the morning of May 7. A Japanese pilot spotted the tanker Neosho and her escort, the destroyer Sims, at 7:36 am, but in his excitement the pilot reported the pair as a carrier and a cruiser. Armed with this misleading information, Takagi launched all planes from both his carriers, and it was not until they arrived over the American vessels that the Japanese realized they had not found the aircraft carriers. The two American ships below were helpless against the onslaught that followed. Four planes broke off from one wave of Neosho attackers to strafe and bomb the tanker, spitting bullets topside and against the hull. Other aircraft rocked Sims with three bombs. The first landed on the no. 2 torpedo mount and exploded in the forward engine room, the second hit the after upper deck house and exploded in the after engine room, and the third bomb smashed onto the no. 4 gun. Within a minute, Sims split in half and began to sink. As the destroyer disappeared, a sailor in the water saw the captain, Lt. Cmdr. Willford M. Hyman, on the bridge, “riding her down like one of the captains of old.” A huge explosion lifted the ship 10 feet out of the water, leaving only 68 survivors. References Battle of the Coral Sea: A Strategic Turning Point in World War II (
For organizational leader ship with the University of Charleston WV. I am requesting assistance with writing a 9 to 12 page essay on Admiral Chester W Nimitz using APA space seven format. I will be g
0 Chester W. Nimitz: How One Man Ruled the Pacific Ronald Hollins Jr. University of Charleston ORGL-435 Assessing Culture Dr. Laura McIntyre 20 June 2021 ABSTRACT Keywords: An extraordinary leader of men The Situation Leadership Strengths and Weaknesses Ethics and Community Organizational Culture Decision Making My Overall Conclusion Final Questions: Effectiveness and Strengths of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz Based on all my research and analysis of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, I… Question 1. Question 2. Question 3. This author would incorporate… References
For organizational leader ship with the University of Charleston WV. I am requesting assistance with writing a 9 to 12 page essay on Admiral Chester W Nimitz using APA space seven format. I will be g
During World War II there were two major fronts of war. The European war front where allied forces fought Germany and where the holocaust took place and the Asia-pacific war front. This is where America got involved in WWII after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. UC Lib DECONSTRUCTING NIMITZ’S PRINCIPLE OF CALCULATED RISK Robert C. Rubel Nimitz – Google Books Pg 53. Nimitz vow that if he was in a position to prevent a discredit to the Navy. not to make the same mistakes as Sampson and Schely Hazing and defied regulations p 54 Bancroft Hall completed sept 1904 midshipmen replacing cadets Nimitz class of Jan 1905 (graduated no. 7 out of 114) early due to Roosevelt needing jr officer in the expanding fleet. Grad as appointed officers not commissioned until serving satisfactory for two years (p. 55). LtCmdr Levi Cavin Bertolette Naval Academy for duty, suitcase full of beer purchased. Nimitz told stated that escapade taught him how to behave for the remainder of the academy. Also taught him to look with lenient and tolerant eyes for first time offenders when he became Commanding Officer holding mast. (p. 55) Happy to get a small ship, able to practice piloting a navigation and teach self reliance and confidence (p. 58). Decatur beat up destroyer to Olongapo in two days p59 Admiral Nimitz daily intel brief p 65 Admiral Layton explain of why Station Hypo didn’t give adv warning to Pearl H (American Ineffeciency) p65 Admiral Halsey USS Enterprise would not get to Tokyo or New Guinea March 19, Capt Duncan arrived in pearl harbor to lay plan for Nimitz Nimitz ask Halsey to take the b-52 bombers 500 miles of Japan, Halsey obliged and Nimitz gave him authority to command p.66 Commander Rochefort to Adm King Japan’s plan and Nimitz accepted brief and based their own assumptions on the future attacks in the illutions, pearl harbor, and midway (most fortified base in central pacific) Nimitz recognize a cardinal rule that he must not risk such loses in defending New Guinea that he will be helpless to counter the later Pacific Ocean offensive p 67 Nimitz assumption that Japan will attack Port Moresby. Nimitz and MacArthur who planned on making Port M a base to block Japanese into Australia and jumping off for the Philippines Mcauthor inexperience crew, Nimitz ordered Fletcher’s Yorktown to Toongatabu to replenish and back to the Coral Sea for action. Ordered Fitche lexingon force at pearl H to head south and rpt to Fletcher on May 1. P67 Hornet and enterprise assumed not discovered or attach by Nimitz Cmdr in chf King and Nimitz concern with Adm Fletcher possible lack of aggressiveness. Wanted Halsey but won’t make it on time Nimitz recognized his own tendency to give a man another chance may not always be in the best interest of the nation. Also, relief and assignments were made in Washington, saving Nimitz Painful, deliberation and embarrassment p68 Pg 69 cont… The History Place – Timeline of Pacific War 1941 December 7, 1941 – Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway. December 8, 1941 – U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand. December 9, 1941 – China declares war on Japan. December 10, 1941 – Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam. December 11, 1941 – Japanese invade Burma. December 15, 1941 – First Japanese merchant ship sunk by a U.S. submarine. December 16, 1941 – Japanese invade British Borneo. December 7, 1941, Rear Admiral Nimitz was selected by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to be the commander-in-chief of the United States Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT). He was promoted to the rank of admiral, effective December 31, 1941, upon assuming command. December 18, 1941 – Japanese invade Hong Kong. December 22, 1941 – Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines. December 23, 1941 – General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan; Japanese take Wake Island. December 25, 1941 – British surrender at Hong Kong. December 26, 1941 – Manila declared an open city. December 27, 1941 – Japanese bomb Manila. 1942 Map of the Japanese Empire at its peak in 1942. January 2, 1942 – Manila and U.S. Naval base at Cavite captured by the Japanese. January 7, 1942 – Japanese attack Bataan in the Philippines. January 11, 1942 – Japanese invade Dutch East Indies and Dutch Borneo. January 16, 1942 – Japanese begin an advance into Burma. January 18, 1942 – German-Japanese-Italian military agreement signed in Berlin. January 19, 1942 – Japanese take North Borneo. January 23, 1942 – Japanese take Rabaul on New Britain in the Solomon Islands and also invade Bougainville, the largest island. January 27, 1942 – First Japanese warship sunk by a U.S. submarine. January 30/31 – The British withdraw into Singapore. The siege of Singapore then begins. February 1, 1942 – First U.S. aircraft carrier offensive of the war as YORKTOWN and ENTERPRISE conduct air raids on Japanese bases in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. February 2, 1942 – Japanese invade Java in the Dutch East Indies. February 8/9 – Japanese invade Singapore. February 14, 1942 – Japanese invade Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies. February 15, 1942 – British surrender at Singapore. February 19, 1942 – Largest Japanese air raid since Pearl Harbor occurs against Darwin, Australia; Japanese invade Bali. February 20, 1942 – First U.S. fighter ace of the war, Lt. Edward O’Hare from the LEXINGTON in action off Rabaul. February 22, 1942 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General MacArthur out of the Philippines. February 23, 1942 – First Japanese attack on the U.S. mainland as a submarine shells an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California. February 24, 1942 – ENTERPRISE attacks Japanese on Wake Island. February 26, 1942 – First U.S. carrier, the LANGLEY, is sunk by Japanese bombers. February 27- March 1 – Japanese naval victory in the Battle of the Java Sea as the largest U.S. warship in the Far East, the HOUSTON, is sunk. March 4, 1942 – Two Japanese flying boats bomb Pearl Harbor; ENTERPRISE attacks Marcus Island, just 1000 miles from Japan. March 7, 1942 – British evacuate Rangoon in Burma; Japanese invade Salamaua and Lae on New Guinea. March 8, 1942 – The Dutch on Java surrender to Japanese. March 11, 1942 – Gen. MacArthur leaves Corregidor and is flown to Australia. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright becomes the new U.S. commander. March 18, 1942 – Gen. MacArthur appointed commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater by President Roosevelt. March 18, 1942 – War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. Despite the internment, over 17,000 Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in World War II in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history. March 23, 1942 – Japanese invade the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. March 24, 1942 – Admiral Chester Nimitz appointed as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific theater. April 3, 1942 – Japanese attack U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan. April 6, 1942 – First U.S. troops arrive in Australia. April 9, 1942 – U.S. forces on Bataan surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. April 10, 1942 – Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths. April 18, 1942 – Surprise U.S. ‘Doolittle’ B-25 air raid from the HORNET against Tokyo boosts Allied morale. April 29, 1942 – Japanese take central Burma. May 1, 1942 – Japanese occupy Mandalay in Burma. May 3, 1942 – Japanese take Tulagi in the Solomon Islands. May 5, 1942 – Japanese prepare to invade Midway and the Aleutian Islands. May 6, 1942 – Japanese take Corregidor as Gen. Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. And Filipino forces in the Philippines. May 7-8, 1942 – Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of the Coral Sea off New Guinea – the first time in history that two opposing carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other. May 12, 1942 – The last U.S. Troops holding out in the Philippines surrender on Mindanao. May 20, 1942 – Japanese complete the capture of Burma and reach India. June 4-5, 1942 – Turning point in the war occurs with a decisive victory for the U.S. against Japan in the Battle of Midway as squadrons of U.S. torpedo planes and dive bombers from ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack and destroy four Japanese carriers, a cruiser, and damage another cruiser and two destroyers. U.S. loses YORKTOWN. June 7, 1942 – Japanese invade the Aleutian Islands. June 9, 1942 – Japanese postpone further plans to take Midway. July 21, 1942 – Japanese land troops near Gona on New Guinea. August 7, 1942 – The first U.S. amphibious landing of the Pacific War occurs as 1st Marine Division invades Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. August 8, 1942 – U.S. Marines take the unfinished airfield on Guadalcanal and name it Henderson Field after Maj. Lofton Henderson, a hero of Midway. August 8/9 – A major U.S. naval disaster off Savo Island, north of Guadalcanal, as eight Japanese warships wage a night attack and sink three U.S. heavy cruisers, an Australian cruiser, and one U.S. destroyer, all in less than an hour. Another U.S. cruiser and two destroyers are damaged. Over 1,500 Allied crewmen are lost. August 17, 1942 – 122 U.S. Marine raiders, transported by submarine, attack Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. August 21, 1942 – U.S. Marines repulse first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal. August 24, 1942 – U.S. And Japanese carriers meet in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons resulting in a Japanese defeat. August 29, 1942 – The Red Cross announces Japan refuses to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U.S. POWs. August 30, 1942 – U.S. Troops invade Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands. September 9/10 – A Japanese floatplane flies two missions dropping incendiary bombs on U.S. forests in the state of Oregon – the only bombing of the continental U.S. during the war. Newspapers in the U.S. voluntarily withhold this information. September 12-14 – Battle of Bloody Ridge on Guadalcanal. September 15, 1942 – A Japanese submarine torpedo attack near the Solomon Islands results in the sinking of the Carrier WASP, Destroyer O’BRIEN and damage to the Battleship NORTH CAROLINA. September 27, 1942 – British offensive in Burma. October 11/12 – U.S. cruisers and destroyers defeat a Japanese task force in the Battle of Cape Esperance off Guadalcanal. October 13, 1942 – The first U.S. Army troops, the 164th Infantry Regiment, land on Guadalcanal. October 14/15 – Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night from warships then send troops ashore onto Guadalcanal in the morning as U.S. planes attack. October 15/17 – Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships. October 18, 1942 – Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign. October 26, 1942 – Battle of Santa Cruz off Guadalcanal between U.S. And Japanese warships results in the loss of the Carrier HORNET. November 14/15 – U.S. And Japanese warships clash again off Guadalcanal resulting in the sinking of the U.S. Cruiser JUNEAU and the deaths of the five Sullivan brothers. November 23/24 – Japanese air raid on Darwin, Australia. November 30 – Battle of Tasafaronga off Guadalcanal. December 2, 1942 – Enrico Fermi conducts the world’s first nuclear chain reaction test at the University of Chicago. December 20-24 – Japanese air raids on Calcutta, India. December 31, 1942 – Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives permission to his troops to withdraw from Guadalcanal after five months of bloody fighting against U.S. Forces 1943 January 2, 1943 – Allies take Buna in New Guinea. January 22, 1943 – Allies defeat Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea. February 1, 1943 – Japanese begin evacuation of Guadalcanal. February 8, 1943 – British-Indian forces begin guerrilla operations against Japanese in Burma. February 9, 1943 – Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ends. March 2-4 – U.S. victory over Japanese in the Battle of Bismarck Sea. April 18, 1943 – U.S. code breakers pinpoint the location of Japanese Admiral Yamamoto flying in a Japanese bomber near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Eighteen P-38 fighters then locate and shoot down Yamamoto. April 21, 1943 – President Roosevelt announces the Japanese have executed several airmen from the Doolittle Raid. April 22, 1943 – Japan announces captured Allied pilots will be given “one way tickets to hell.” May 10, 1943 – U.S. Troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands. May 14, 1943 – A Japanese submarine sinks the Australian hospital ship CENTAUR resulting in 299 dead. May 31, 1943 – Japanese end their occupation of the Aleutian Islands as the U.S. completes the capture of Attu. June 1, 1943 – U.S. begins submarine warfare against Japanese shipping. June 21, 1943 – Allies advance to New Georgia, Solomon Islands. July 8, 1943 – B-24 Liberators flying from Midway bomb Japanese on Wake Island. August 1/2 – A group of 15 U.S. PT-boats attempt to block Japanese convoys south of Kolombangra Island in the Solomon Islands. PT-109, commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, is rammed and sunk by the Japanese Cruiser AMAGIRI, killing two and badly injuring others. The crew survives as Kennedy aids one badly injured man by towing him to a nearby atoll. August 6/7, 1943 – Battle of Vella Gulf in the Solomon Islands. August 25, 1943 – Allies complete the occupation of New Georgia. September 4, 1943 – Allies recapture Lae-Salamaua, New Guinea. October 7, 1943 – Japanese execute approximately 100 American POWs on Wake Island. October 26, 1943 – Emperor Hirohito states his country’s situation is now “truly grave.” November 1, 1943 – U.S. Marines invade Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. November 2, 1943 – Battle of Empress Augusta Bay. November 20, 1943 – U.S. Troops invade Makin and Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. November 23, 1943 – Japanese end resistance on Makin and Tarawa. December 15, 1943 – U.S. Troops land on the Arawe Peninsula of New Britain in the Solomon Islands. December 26, 1943 – Full Allied assault on New Britain as 1st Division Marines invade Cape Gloucester. 1944 January 9, 1944 – British and Indian troops recapture Maungdaw in Burma. January 31, 1944 – U.S. Troops invade Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands. February 1-7, 1944 – U.S. Troops capture Kwajalein and Majura Atolls in the Marshall Islands. February 17/18 – U.S. Carrier-based planes destroy the Japanese naval base at Truk in the Caroline Islands. February 20, 1944 – U.S. Carrier-based and land-based planes destroy the Japanese base at Rabaul. February 23, 1944 – U.S. Carrier-based planes attack the Mariana Islands. February 24, 1944 – Merrill’s Marauders begin a ground campaign in northern Burma. March 5, 1944 – Gen. Wingate’s groups begin operations behind Japanese lines in Burma. March 15, 1944 – Japanese begin offensive toward Imphal and Kohima. April 17, 1944 – Japanese begin their last offensive in China, attacking U.S. air bases in eastern China. April 22, 1944 – Allies invade Aitape and Hollandia in New Guinea. May 27, 1944 – Allies invade Biak Island, New Guinea. June 5, 1944 – The first mission by B-29 Superfortress bombers occurs as 77 planes bomb Japanese railway facilities at Bangkok, Thailand. June 15, 1944 – U.S. Marines invade Saipan in the Mariana Islands. June 15/16 – The first bombing raid on Japan since the Doolittle raid of April 1942, as 47 B-29s based in Bengel, India, target the steel works at Yawata. June 19, 1944 – The “Marianas Turkey Shoot” occurs as U.S. Carrier-based fighters shoot down 220 Japanese planes, while only 20 American planes are lost. July 8, 1944 – Japanese withdraw from Imphal. July 19, 1944 – U.S. Marines invade Guam in the Marianas. July 24, 1944 – U.S. Marines invade Tinian. July 27, 1944 – American troops complete the liberation of Guam. August 3, 1944 – U.S. And Chinese troops take Myitkyina after a two month siege. August 8, 1944 – American troops complete the capture of the Mariana Islands. September 15, 1944 – U.S. Troops invade Morotai and the Paulaus. October 11, 1944 – U.S. Air raids against Okinawa. October 18, 1944 – Fourteen B-29s based on the Marianas attack the Japanese base at Truk. October 20, 1944 – U.S. Sixth Army invades Leyte in the Philippines. October 23-26 – Battle of Leyte Gulf results in a decisive U.S. Naval victory. October 25, 1944 – The first suicide air (Kamikaze) attacks occur against U.S. warships in Leyte Gulf. By the end of the war, Japan will have sent an estimated 2,257 aircraft. “The only weapon I feared in the war,” Adm. Halsey will say later. November 11, 1944 – Iwo Jima bombarded by the U.S. Navy. November 24, 1944 – Twenty four B-29s bomb the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo. December 15, 1944 – U.S. Troops invade Mindoro in the Philippines. December 17, 1944 – The U.S. Army Air Force begins preparations for dropping the Atomic Bomb by establishing the 509th Composite Group to operate the B-29s that will deliver the bomb. 1945 January 3, 1945 – Gen. MacArthur is placed in command of all U.S. ground forces and Adm. Nimitz in command of all naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan itself. January 4, 1945 – British occupy Akyab in Burma. January 9, 1945 – U.S. Sixth Army invades Lingayen Gulf on Luzon in the Philippines. January 11, 1945 – Air raid against Japanese bases in Indochina by U.S. Carrier-based planes. January 28, 1945 – The Burma road is reopened. February 3, 1945 – U.S. Sixth Army attacks Japanese in Manila. February 16, 1945 – U.S. Troops recapture Bataan in the Philippines. February 19, 1945 – U.S. Marines invade Iwo Jima. March 1, 1945 – A U.S. submarine sinks a Japanese merchant ship loaded with supplies for Allied POWs, resulting in a court martial for the captain of the submarine, since the ship had been granted safe passage by the U.S. Government. March 2, 1945 – U.S. airborne troops recapture Corregidor in the Philippines. March 3, 1945 – U.S. And Filipino troops take Manila. March 9/10 – Fifteen square miles of Tokyo erupts in flames after it is fire bombed by 279 B-29s. March 10, 1945 – U.S. Eighth Army invades Zamboanga Peninsula on Mindanao in the Philippines. March 20, 1945 – British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma. March 27, 1945 – B-29s lay mines in Japan’s Shimonoseki Strait to interrupt shipping. April 1, 1945 – The final amphibious landing of the war occurs as the U.S. Tenth Army invades Okinawa. April 7, 1945 – B-29s fly their first fighter-escorted mission against Japan with P-51 Mustangs based on Iwo Jima; U.S. Carrier-based fighters sink the super battleship YAMATO and several escort vessels which planned to attack U.S. Forces at Okinawa. April 12, 1945 – President Roosevelt dies, succeeded by Harry S. Truman. May 8, 1945 – Victory in Europe Day. May 20, 1945 – Japanese begin withdrawal from China. May 25, 1945 – U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff approve Operation Olympic, the invasion of Japan, scheduled for November 1. June 9, 1945 – Japanese Premier Suzuki announces Japan will fight to the very end rather than accept unconditional surrender. June 18, 1945 – Japanese resistance ends on Mindanao in the Philippines. June 22, 1945 – Japanese resistance ends on Okinawa as the U.S. Tenth Army completes its capture. June 28, 1945 – MacArthur’s headquarters announces the end of all Japanese resistance in the Philippines. July 5, 1945 – Liberation of Philippines declared. July 10, 1945 – 1,000 bomber raids against Japan begin. July 14, 1945 – The first U.S. Naval bombardment of Japanese home islands. July 16, 1945 – First Atomic Bomb is successfully tested in the U.S. July 26, 1945 – Components of the Atomic Bomb “Little Boy” are unloaded at Tinian Island in the South Pacific. July 29, 1945 – A Japanese submarine sinks the Cruiser INDIANAPOLIS resulting in the loss of 881 crewmen. The ship sinks before a radio message can be sent out leaving survivors adrift for two days. August 6, 1945 – First Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima from a B-29 flown by Col. Paul Tibbets. August 8, 1945 – U.S.S.R. declares war on Japan then invades Manchuria. August 9, 1945 – Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on Nagasaki from a B-29 flown by Maj. Charles Sweeney — Emperor Hirohito and Japanese Prime Minister Suzuki then decide to seek an immediate peace with the Allies. August 14, 1945 – Japanese accept unconditional surrender; Gen. MacArthur is appointed to head the occupation forces in Japan. August 16, 1945 – Gen. Wainwright, a POW since May 6, 1942, is released from a POW camp in Manchuria. August 27, 1945 – B-29s drop supplies to Allied POWs in China. August 29, 1945 – The Soviets shoot down a B-29 dropping supplies to POWs in Korea; U.S. Troops land near Tokyo to begin the occupation of Japan. August 30, 1945 – The British reoccupy Hong Kong. September 2, 1945 – Formal Japanese surrender ceremony on board the MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay as 1,000 carrier-based planes fly overhead; President Truman declares VJ Day. September 3, 1945 – The Japanese commander in the Philippines, Gen. Yamashita, surrenders to Gen. Wainwright at Baguio. September 4, 1945 – Japanese troops on Wake Island surrender. September 5, 1945 – British land in Singapore. September 8, 1945 – MacArthur enters Tokyo. September 9, 1945 – Japanese in Korea surrender. September 13, 1945 – Japanese in Burma surrender. October 24, 1945 – United Nations is born.

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