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Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 1 Fluid Resuscitation for Sepsis: Integrat ed Review Autumn Teal HCM 440 – Healthcare Research & Evaluation Southern New Hampshire University April 26, 2020 Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 2 Abstract Aim: The aim of this integrative review is to conduct a review of the literature using a systematic approach for current research and synthesize these research studies of albumin resuscitation compared to saline resuscitation in critical care patients with sep sis to validate a program Critical Care Center for Patient Innovation at Tennessee Memorial Hospital. Background: Fluid resuscitation is the primary treatment for patients with septic shock and sepsis. However, only few studies have described the current i nitial fluid resuscitation practice. Design and Data Sources: Systemic literature searches from healthcare evidence-based databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systemic Review for previously published peer -reviewed studies throughout the years 2011-2019. The inclusion of healthcare evidence -based databases was integrated. Articles published beyond 2011 were excluded from database searches. Review Method: A five -stage integrative review method was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. This method consisted of developing a problem formulation using a PICO format, “In critical care patients, how does albumin resuscitation compared to saline resuscitation affect sepsis?” Results: Six papers were included in this research dated b etween 2011 to 2019. According to the synthesis, the use of albumin containing products versus saline fluid resuscitation did not show a reduction in mortality among patients. Conclusion: The use of albumin- containing fluids compared to normal saline for resuscitation in patients diagnosed with sepsis of any severity did not demonstrate significant advantage . Due to the cost -effectiveness of albumin, crystalloids should be the first choice for fluid resuscitation in septic patients. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 3 Keywords : fluid resuscitation, saline, albumin, sepsis, crystalloids, colloi ds Introduction Background. The problem being addressed in this integrated review is the significance of mortality rates based on albumin or saline fluid resuscitation in patients diagnosed with sepsis. The primary treatment and management of patients diagnosed with sepsis is the resuscitation of fluids. The ideal volume and composition of the resuscitation fluids are currently unknown ( Carlsen & Perner, 2011). The estimated number of patients per year diagnosed with severe sepsis tops 750,000 in the United States and reaches up to 19 million worldwide. Sepsis presents with a short -term mortality rate of 20% -30% and exceeds up to 50% when shock is present in the body. Sepsis death rates continue to rise in the United States and is the leading cause of death among hospitalized patients in non- coronary intensive care units (Jiang, et al., 2014). However, e arly administration of fluid resuscitation interventions is key in the management of sepsis. Nevertheless , the appropriate use of fluid therapy remains controversial. Therefore, the question arises, in critical care patients, how does albumin resuscitation compared to saline resuscitation affect sepsis? The independent variable (IV) in the study is th e use of albumin- containing fluids and the dependent variable (DV) would be how this affects patients diagnosed with sepsis. The aim of this integrative review is to conduct a review of the literature using a systematic approach for current research and sy nthesize these research studies of albumin resuscitation compared to saline resuscitation in critical care patients with sepsis to validate a Critical Care Center for Patient Innovation program at Tennessee Memorial Hospital. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 4 Literature Review Design and Data Sources. Systemic literature searches were performed from CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systemic Review databases from 2011 to 2019 for previously published peer -reviewed studies . These databases were chosen for the searching of evidence -based scholarly -reviewed articles to validate credible and reliable studies. CINAHL database provides t he top nursing and allied health literature available including nursing journals and publications from the National League for Nursing and the American Nurses Association. Literature covers a wide variety of topics from biomedicine to allied health disciplines. MEDLINE is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes academic journals covering medicine, nursing , pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and healthcare. Cochrane Database of Systemic Review is a library consisting of collections of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties. Initial key word searches included fluid resuscitation, sepsi s, saline, albumin-containing solutions, and crystalloids . Further restriction of key words and MeSH terms included meta -analysis, systematic- review, sepsis, albumin, and resuscitation yielded considerable results with reliable and expedient information. U tilizing MeSH terms such as albumin and resuscitation and sepsis produced relevant research articles to include those specific key words in correlation with the PICO being addressed. Inclusion criteria for this integrated review were journals and articles that were peer reviewed with information on fluid resuscitation for sepsis patients and published between 2011 and 2019. Exclusions consisted of any articles beyond the year 2011 in order to narrow the search. Journal and articles that did not contain information on sepsis patients or did not have supportive data were also excluded. All articles were evaluated for high est level of evidence (LOE). Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 5 Methodology Analysis Review method. A five -stage integrative review method was used. This method consisted of (a) problem formulation was developed using a PICO format, in critical care patients, how does albumin resuscitation compared to saline resuscitation affect sepsis, (b) searches of these evidence -based databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library by us ing the key words fluid resuscitation, sepsis, saline, albumin- containing solutions, and crystalloids and MeSH terms included meta -analysis, systematic -review, sepsis, albumin, and resuscitation (c) evaluation of data, (d) data analysis and interpretation, and (e) presentation of results in an evidence table by the identification and evaluation of what was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. Focus of this review on fluid resuscitation in sepsis was narrowed towards articles less than eight years old with a focus on systematic reviews and meta -analysis for high est level of evidence (LOE). Any and all articles from blogs, books, and Google or Google Scholar were excluded due to lack of credibility and reliability. The dependent and independent variable search terms lead to the majority of articles and journals chosen being systematic reviews and meta- analysis. These findings indicate that the articles contain high level of evidence (LOE) and reliability. Synthesis and Interpretation Results. Using standard process for conducting an integrative review, six peer -reviewed research studies published in refereed journals were analyzed and synthesized. According to the synthesis of these studies, the use of albumin- containing products versus normal saline resuscitation therapy demonstrated no significant advantage in patients with any severity of sepsis. The research strategies used to gather information consisted of predominantly randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with secondary data such as systematic reviews and meta- analysis in Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 6 quantitative research methods . These studies followed a logical manner with a clear and evident link beginning with the purpose of the study following through. These sources were objective with no bias noted in the resear ch studies reviewed, with the exception of Annals of Internal Medicine and The American Journal of Emergency Medicine . The risk of bias for individual studies and quality of evidence were assessed and was found within the limitations. These trials were het erogenous in case mix, fluids evaluated, and duration of fluid exposure. Imprecise estimates for several comparisons in this network meta -analysis contribute to low confidence in most estimates of effect (Rochwerg, et al., 2014). Data was collected in numerous ways however randomized trials was leading . Carlsen & Perner (2011) consisted of a prospective cohort study of all patients with sepsis or septic shock admitted in six intensive care units during a three -month period. Patients were divided into tw o groups according to the overall median volume of resuscitation fluid administered during the first twenty -four hours after the diagnosis. Jiang, et al., (2014) consisted of fifteen eligible randomized controlled trials for analysis. Several predefined su bgroup analyses were performed according to patient age (adult or pediatric), type of resuscitation fluid (crystalloids or gelofusine or starch), concentration of albumin (4% to 5% solution or 20% to 25% solution), follow -up interval (intensive care unit mortality, hospital mortality, 28/30 day mortality and ninety day mortality), disease severity (sepsis, sever sepsis, septic shock), and definition of sepsis. Despite the subgrouping of this particular study, there was no significant effect of albumin- containing fluids on mortality in patients with sepsis of any severity. While the difference in mortality between groups did not reach statistical significance, these findings indicate that 4% to 5% albumin may be safer than 20% to 25% albumin for fluid resusci tation in patients diagnosed with Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 7 sepsis of any severity. Conclusive to this, further studies are implausible to change the existing conclusion. Despite best efforts of research and data collection methods, gaps and inconsistences were present throughout this review process with indications of observable limitations. Rochwerg, et al., (2014) trials consisted of heterogenous trials, fluids assessed, extent of exposure, and risk of bias. These factors have the potential to alter conclusions. Liu, et al., (2019) meta -analysis comprised of potential limitations. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were of difficulty to perform due to lack of data. Patients that were included in this meta -analysis presented with varying levels of secondary trauma such as acute pan creatitis which resulted in heterogeneity. There was potential for partial recovery of identified research studies, introducing bias. Carlsen & Perner (2011) impedes strong conclusions regarding the effects of fluid resuscitation for septic patients. Gaps for this study includes the lack of timing and rate of fluid infusion assessment by clinicians. The majority of patients in this research method were given broad- spectrum antibiotics before the absolute diagnosis, but those who had not received them did not present with an inferior outcome. Despite the limitations and gaps present, this study was solely observational in design. Delaney, et al., (2011) consisted of a meta -analysis that presented with non- optimal methodological quality. The results of this an alysis differ from those of previous meta -analyses of albumin in patients with sepsis or severe sepsis. This method focused on a specific population rather than heterogenous populations such as others. Jiang, et al., (2014) meta -analysis presented with het erogeneity between different studies and the methodological quality of all studies included in this research was adaptable. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 8 Ethical Concerns Ethical concerns. There were no present concerns of ethics in the creation and implementation in any of these reviewed studies. The ethics committee of Copenhagen and the Danish Data Protection Agency approved the study of Carlsen & Perner, (2011). All other studies were deemed ethical and declared no conflict of interest . Conclusion Strengths. The strength of t hese reviews is included in a precise clinical question that is limited to patients with sepsis rather than critically ill patients as a whole. The strength lies in the focus of resuscitation rather than the maintenance of fluid therapy. Studies consisted of inclusions of patients in intensive care units and comprised of follow -up with the National Patient Registry using national patient identification numbers. Limitations. The patterns of limitations varied between studies reviewed based on population, stu dy size, demographics and control or subgroups being most prevalent. Despite the present gaps and inconsistencies in each study, they were efficient in concluding the result of albumin- containing products versus saline in fluid resuscitation not demonstrat ing an increase in mortality rates in patients with sepsis. Validity and Reliability. The results of all studies reviewed deemed reliable and valid as indication of highest level of evidence (LOE). All studies presented with strong level I of evidence excluding Carlsen & Perner, (2011), which consists of LOE II. Studies revealed reliable as confirmation of strong sources, authors, and year published. Studies supported each other with aligning evidence and outcomes in relation to albumin versus saline resus citation in patients with sepsis. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 9 Implications. The implications of this research reveal that there is no advantage to administering albumin versus saline in the reduction of mortality in sepsis patients. Based off of these conclusions, a sepsis patient c an be treated with either available intervention. Factors such as population, demographic, or available access have no determination in which product is administered. However, if economic burden is present, the use of crystalloids should be of first choice due to the cost of albumin- containing products. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 10 References: Carlsen, S., & Perner, A. (2011). Initial Fluid Resuscitation of Patients with Septic Shock in the Intensive Care Unit. ACTA Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 394–400. doi: 10.1111/j.1399- 6576.2011.02399.x Delaney, A. P., Dan, A. P., McCaffrey, J. P., & Finfer, S. P. (2011). The Role of Albumin as a Resuscitation Fluid for Patients with Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta -Analysis. Critical Care Medicine , 39(2), 386–391. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181ffe217 Jiang, L., Jiang, S., Zhang, M., Zheng, Z., & Ma, Y. (2014). Albumin Versus Other Fluids for Fluid Resuscitation in Patients with Sepsis: A Meta -Analysis. PloS One , 1–21. doi: 0.1371/journal.pone.0114666 Liu, C., Lu, G., Wang , D., Lei, Y., Mao, Z., Hu, P., … Zhou, F. (2019). Balanced Crystalloids Versus Normal Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta -Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis. The American Journal of Emergency Medici ne, 37 (11), 2072–2078. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.02.045 Rochwerg, B. H., Alhazzani, W. J., Sindi, A. undefined, Heels -Ansdell , D. undefined, Thabane, L. undefined, Fox -Robichaud, A. undefined, … Annane, D. undefined. (2014). Fluid Resuscitation in Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1–11. doi: 10.7326/M14- 0178 Seccombe, A., McCluskey, L., Moorey, H., Lasserson, D., & Sapey, E. (2019). Assessing Fluid Resuscitation in Adults with Sepsis Who Are Not Mechanically Ventila ted: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies. Journal of General Internal Medicine , 1874–1883. doi: 10.1007/s11606- 019-05073- 9 Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 11 Appendix A Table 1. Summary Evidence Table Report Citation Design Method Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Validity and Reliability Carlsen & Perner (2011) To evaluate the current initial fluid resuscitation practice in patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patient characteristics and outcome associated with fluid volume. Prospective cohort and observational study. Patients with septic shock admitted in six ICUs during a 3- month period. One -page case report form by the clinician of the patient in the specific ICU and entered into an Excel data sheet by a single research nurse. Although more severely shocked patients received higher volumes of crystalloids, colloids, and blood products, mortality did not differ between groups. Level I I LOE . Strong size of patient groups. Delaney, et al . (2011) To assess whether resuscitation with albumin -containing solutions, compared to other fluids, is associated with lower mortality in patients with sepsis. Prospective randomized clinical trials with quantitative data synthesis. Eight studies including patients with sepsis and nine studies of patients with sepsis as a subgroup. Two reviewers independently extracted data onto data forms designed specifically for the study; data was checked for accuracy by a third reviewer. Evidence suggests albumin reduces mortality when used as a resuscitation fluid for patients with sepsis. Level I LOE. Systematic review and meta- analysis with strong reliability. Jiang, et al . (2014) To evaluate whether the use of albumin -containing fluids for resuscitation in Fifteen randomized controlled trials. Patients with sepsis of any severity. Extraction of all relevant data was conducted by two authors independently. The present meta-analysis did not demonstrate significant Level I LOE. A meta -analysis with strong reliability. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 12 patients with sepsis was associated with a decreased mortality rate. Methodological quality. advantage of using albumin – containing fluids for resuscitation in patients with sepsis of any severity. Liu, et al. (2019). To compare the efficacy and safety of balanced crystalloids with normal saline. Nine randomized controlled trials were identified. Methodological quality of included trials was assessed by two reviewers according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Critically ill patients over the age of 18 requiring fluid resuscitation. Two independent reviewers performed the data extraction using a standardized form. Among critically ill patients receiving crystalloid fluid therapy, the use of a balanced crystalloid compared with normal saline did not reduce the risk of mortality. Level I LO E. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Low risk of publication bias. Limited sample size, >18 years. Rochwerg, et al. (2014). To examine the effect of different resuscitative fluids on mortality in patients with sepsis. 14 st udies (18,916 patients) with 15 direct comparisons. Adult patients with sepsis or septic shock. Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Among patients with sepsis, resuscitation with balanced crystalloids or albumin compared with other fluids seems to be associated with Level I LOE. A systematic review and network meta – analysis. Risk of bias. Imprecise estimates. Running head: FLUID RESUSCITATION 13 reduced mortality. Seccombe, et al . (2019) To assess studies of diagnostic tests that identify the need for fluid resuscitation in adults with sepsis, as defined by the presence of fluid responsiveness. 594 patients within 14 studies. Reported using PRISMA guidelines. Adults with sepsis without intensive care organ support, who would be appropriate for admission to an acute medical unit. Data was extracted using a piloted, standardized form, following translation of non-English language articles if required. Evidence to support fluid assessment in awake adults is lacking. Level I LOE. A systematic review with high reliability. Median sample size and primarily single – centre.
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mage is from https://imperialwriters7.medium.com/research-project-why-limitations-of-the-study-should-come-at-the-end-of-the-project-3282c8c1e36 You have all been during such a great job on your last discussion and I want to share the important of objectively written conclusions. I am going to miss all of you! Please review this on the course webpage https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/news/965074/4393704/view Excerpt from the template – keep black font prompts and remove red font reminders. Conclusions Strengths. What are the research studies’ strengths? Are there patterns in regard the strengths for the intervention evaluation? Limitations. What are the studies’ limitations? Are these patterns of limitations such as research design, methods, and sampling? Validity and reliabilities. Were the findings and conclusions reliable and valid, such as low LOE scores? Why or why not? Logically support the argument. Implications. What are the clinical implications of this research on the intervention into the healthcare programming for a hospital or health center? How will it affect the implementation of the intervention in relation to the outcome? Example of a well written conclusions from the attached integrative review: Conclusion Strengths. The strength of these reviews is included in a precise clinical question that is limited to patients with sepsis rather than critically ill patients as a whole. The strength lies in the focus of resuscitation rather than the maintenance of fluid therapy. Studies consisted of inclusions of patients in intensive care units and comprised of follow-up with the National Patient Registry using national patient identification numbers. Limitations. The patterns of limitations varied between studies reviewed based on population, study size, demographics and control or subgroups being most prevalent. Despite the present gaps and inconsistencies in each study, they were efficient in concluding the result of albumin-containing products versus saline in fluid resuscitation not demonstrating an increase in mortality rates in patients with sepsis. Validity and Reliability. The results of all studies reviewed deemed reliable and valid as indication of highest level of evidence (LOE). All studies presented with strong level I of evidence excluding Carlsen & Perner, (2011), which consists of LOE II. Studies revealed reliable as confirmation of strong sources, authors, and year published. Studies supported each other with aligning evidence and outcomes in relation to albumin versus saline resuscitation in patients with sepsis. Implications. The implications of this research reveal that there is no advantage to administering albumin versus saline in the reduction of mortality in sepsis patients. Based off of these conclusions, a sepsis patient can be treated with either available intervention. Factors such as population, demographic, or available access have no determination in which product is administered. However, if economic burden is present, the use of crystalloids should be of first choice due to the cost of albumin-containing products. Regards
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MODULE 6 SHORT PAPER Teleshia Colvin Southern New Hampshire University 6-2 Short Paper Analyzing Research Methods MODULE 6 SHORT PAPER It’s essential to develop research and understand the relationship between patient falls and increased intensity of physical exercise. Most people believe that physical exercise is directly related to physical strength and gradual reduction in falls among the elderly. However, they fail to understand that in case elderly people fall, they may get hurt and develop a phobia against physical exercise. Therefore through systematic data collection, analysis and presentation are possible to understand whether there is a direct link between physical interventions and reduced fall rates among the elderly. Forming an integration between proper research methods, data collection tools, and analysis methods helped in providing adequate information about whether physical interventions are essential for falls reduction, potential gaps within this research area, and recommendations for future research. The PICO format was used to internet search for key terms that would provide the researchers with relevant, contemporary, and accurate studies relating to this subject area. The major keywords used in the research included elderly people, physical or exercise interventions, risk of falling, nurse’s roles, patient’s age, among other essential words. Over the research process, the research understood potential gaps within the field and inconsistencies to avoid bias over the process. After the development of research questions, the research methods used in the study was the review of secondary sources of data; this included analysis of literature reviews and multiple sources relating the failure rates increase among the elderly people. Additionally, through internet research, interviews and surveys relating to the subject matter were obtained. Additionally, there were scholarly and peer-reviewed sources used during the systematic literature review process; the articles were to be written and published in English. According to the research questions that were to be answered, the data collection methods were similar; however, during the research process, the PICO question was researchers along the keywords relating to the research topic. It provided the study within relevant articles; additionally, quality assessment criteria were used throughout the process to ensure the articles were scholarly and qualified for a research paper. Some keywords include in this phase include elderly people, physical or exercise interventions, risk of falling. The criteria for this data collection helped the author to have relevant and current articles that should be used for the synthesis process. Additionally, the data analysis procedures used include measures of central tendency, including the mean, median, and determination of the sizes of the sample, which are relatively simple statistics. These measures of standards deviation helped to evaluate the positive and negative correlations to understand the association. For example, the interquartile range was used in the discussion of the highest and lowest number of falls after interventions occurred. Therefore the statistical analysis provided the author with the most interactive and effective means of interpreting various studies and making the necessary deductions. This method was appropriate since it offered an authentic and honest opinion from the respondents regarding the appropriateness of the exercise intervention and areas that would be improved to provide maximum value. Morello et al. (2019). Although the research process and analysis were comprehensive and satisfactory, there were numerous gaps over the process, meaning that additional research was needed in this field to understand the effects of a physical intervention on reduced patient’s fails. Firstly was that there may have been biased research since no research was found to have a negative relationship between physical intervention and falling rates. Therefore it’s either that the previous researchers knew the expectations of their research or they never recorded everything. Therefore since only secondary research papers were used, our literature review may be subjected to publication bias where all researchers have similar thoughts. References Burns, E., & Kakara, R. (2018). Deaths from falls among persons aged≥ 65 years—the United States, 2007–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(18), 509. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6718a1 Dionyssiotis, Y. (2012). Analyzing the problem of falls among older people. International journal of eneral medicine, 5, 805. DOI: 10.2147/IJGM.S32651 Morello, R. T., Soh, S. E., Behm, K., Egan, A., Ayton, D., Hill, K., … & Barker, A. L. (2019). Multifactorial falls prevention programmes for older adults presenting to the emergency department with a fall: systematic review and meta-analysis. Injury prevention, 25(6), 557-564. DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-04321
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Running head – SHORTEN TITLE Full Title of the Integrative Review Student Name HCM 440 – Healthcare Research & Evaluation Southern New Hampshire University XXXX, XX, 2021 Abstract Aim. Background. Design and data sources. Review method. Results. Conclusion. Keywords: XXX The abstract is the summary of the integrative including the statement of the problem with the aim statement, PICO, procedure for the integrative review, method of evaluation of results, research findings, and conclusions on one page. Do not use pronouns such as “I, my, we” are in this review. Do not include personal information. Write objectively in a scientific manner with a ‘neutral narrative voice’, refer to the Writing Tips for Healthcare Professional. Pages 2-4 for guidance. Do not use constructive words, example given” isn’t”. Introduction Background. The problem being addressed in this integrated review is Introduce the topic of interest with supportive evidence and in-text citations. Discuss the significance of the problem. State the guiding question, which is the PICO in the correct format, In XXX (P), how does XXX interventions (IV) compared to XXX intervention (CV) affect XXX (O)? and identify and define the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV). The IV is the intervention (I) and DV (O) is the outcome and why this is the focus of the review. Aim. The aim of this integrative review is to conduct a review of the literature using a systematic approach for current research and synthesize six high level of evidence (LOE) research studies on XXX intervention compared to no XXX intervention or another intervention for adults with or children or adolescent with XXX to validate XXX program for XXX. Literature Review Design and Data Sources. Systematic literature searches from XX databases of these years XX for previously published peer-reviewed studies. Inclusions were XX. Exclusions were XX. Which evidence-based databases were searched (these are the healthcare evidence-based databases – Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL)? Why were these databases chosen for the PICO searches? Assess the characteristics that make the chosen healthcare evidence-based databases the most reliable for integrative review. Give an overall of each database characteristics that was chosen. Reminder — google, google scholar or the general library is NOT healthcare evidence-based databases and EBSCO is the host, not the database. State keywords and combinations used in the initial search and following searches. State MeSH terms used in the searches. Which were the most effective? Explain objectively why these keywords and combinations provided the most useful results. Integrative Review Methodology Review method. A five-stage integrative review method was used for this clinical intervention for a healthcare program. This method consisted of (a) problem formulation was developed using a guiding question PICO format, XXXX state PICO (b) searches of these evidence-based databases XXX state those databases by using the key words XXX and MeSH terms XXX , (c) evaluation of data, (d) data analysis and interpretation, and (e) presentation of results in Appendix A – Table 1 Evidence Table by the identification and evaluation of was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. (Adapted from Whittemore & Knafl 2005). Include the search and focus the review (such less than 5 years, systematic reviews, meta- analysis, no books, blogs etc.)? How will these variables (IV and DV) help throughout this integrated review? How were the final six research articles determined? Be sure to include the process. The evidence table is critical to receive methodology points in the rubric. The Table will address: What was each research study objective or purpose statement? If primary research (LOE II-IV), was the researchers bias or objective? If secondary research (e.g., systematic reviews and meta-analysis), was the analysis biased? What would the strengths of using secondary data evaluated in a systematic review with meta-analysis, LOE 1 or a narrative systematic review (LOE IV)? Evaluate by identifying the research design and methods in the journal articles, title, abstract and method sections and score the level of evidence (LOE) for validity on the hierarchy of evidence table. What methodology and sampling were used in each research article and furthermore, the statistical data analyses employed in each research article? Analysis and Synthesis Results. Using evidence-based medicine’s systematic process for conducting an integrative review, six peer reviewed research studies published in refereed journals were analyzed and synthesized on a proposed clinical intervention and furthermore, to use for the validation of healthcare program. Research Methods. Explains types of research methods used and discusses the appropriateness of methods. Data Collection and Analysis. Identifies data collection methods used and analyzes the types of statistical tests. Gaps and Inconsistencies. Identifies both the gaps and inconsistencies noted in the body of evidence (six research studies) Synthesis of the findings. According to the analyzed and synthesis of these research studies, XXXX. Review these videos an Integrative Literature Review. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xo55TMNvCGY&t=300s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuWm40fBTUE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MBC8kQfyfdE On synthesis, review this video: Synthesis: Definition & Examples — you must synthesize four findings of the six research studies. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLhkalJe7Zc&list=PLM7NbPzilFBcTEAK6pWKJLRtOq7vwfuQU&index=2 Compare and contrast using a “bird’s eye view” of the study findings and patterns and trends using the MEAD synthesis method. Review this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOG67LeEvfU&list=PLM7NbPzilFBcTEAK6pWKJLRtOq7vwfuQU&index=1 Be sure to include ONLY pertinent conclusions and statistical findings with in-text citations. DO NOT use long quotes. You might want to use the synthesize worksheet to identify those items ONLY, do not include that worksheet in this integrative review. Evaluate the six research journal articles for gaps and inconsistencies that exist and again, share an overview “bird’s eye look”. This is about three to four pages of the integrative review. This need to be covered in the synthesis in the narrative: Compare and contrast the study findings with pertinent conclusions and statistical findings only. What patterns and trends exist in the research? What generalizations can be drawn from the research? This is the place to add your materials from your module six paper along with synthesis. Ethics Comprehensively evaluate these research studies and consider how ethical concerns may have limited these clinical investigations. Assess each research study article for ethical concerns that may be present. Consider conflicts of interest between the researcher and the study sponsors, or the lack of an IRB approval for the study. Conclusions Strengths. What are the research studies’ strengths? Are there patterns in regard the strengths for the intervention evaluation? Limitations. What are the studies’ limitations? Are these patterns of limitations such as research design, methods, and sampling? Validity and reliabilities. Were the findings and conclusions reliable and valid, such as low LOE scores? Why or why not? Logically support the argument. Implications. What are the clinical implications of this research on the intervention into the healthcare programming for a hospital or health center? How will it affect the implementation of the intervention in relation to the outcome? References Must be alphabetic order by the first author, do not number references. Use APA style, consider using journal option of Citefast located at: https://www.citefast.com/?s=APA Also, PubMed and PubMed Central databases have citations capabilities on each journal article (click on ‘cite’ and locate APA style) to locate the journal article DOI. DO NOT use proxy SNHU DOIs. Refer to DOI announcement. Appendix A Table 1 – Title. This MUST be changed to the APA style format. It usually takes up a couple pages and put this in landscape view. Instructions on converting to landscape view is on the internet. Author/ Date/Journal Research Design/ Purpose Statement Research Method Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Validity/ Reliability Convert to an APA style evidence table of your six research articles into Table 1. Use these seven columns to entry information. The research articles must be in alphabetic order of first author. This video explores the “whys” of an evidence table: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nX2R9FzYhT0 This is how to format your evidence table using word in APA style. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RM8Qj8KB_CI The validity score is the located on the LOE hierarchy table, e.g., systematic reviews with mega-analysis are LOE I and randomized controlled trials are LOE II. Make sure you use the correct score.
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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FALLS AMONG THE ELDERLY PEOPLE Teleshia Colvin Southern New Hampshire University 02/12/2022 Dionyssiotis, Y. (2012). Analyzing the problem of falls among older people. International journal of eneral medicine, 5, 805. DOI: 10.2147/IJGM.S32651 According to the article, there are numerous problems that the elderly people are exposed to however falls is among their major problems today. Therefore the major role of care givers is to develop appropriate mechanisms that seeks to provide maximum care to them. Additionally there is need to promote the maximum possible functionality therefore preventing feelings of disability. The authors agree that falls results from the person moving to rest inadvertently to the ground, therefore falls are not always resulting from epileptic seizure, violent blow, paralysis or loss of consciousness. Hence intrinsic activities do not lead to falls but a person coming to rest unintentionally. The authors agree that falls are related to increased mortality, functionality loss, admission into nursing homes prematurely and reduced morbidity. Some of the risk factors associated with falling among the elderly includes environmental problems, disease and aging. This article will be applicable in my question since we seek to understand the relationship between falls and aging and how potential physical activities can gradually reduce falling risk among the elderly. Agarwal, G., Angeles, R., Pirrie, M., McLeod, B., Marzanek, F., Parascandalo, J., & Thabane, L. (2019). Reducing 9-1-1 emergency medical service calls by implementing a community paramedicine program for vulnerable older adults in public housing in Canada: a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial. Prehospital Emergency Care. DOI: 10.1080/10903127.2019.1566421 According to the article, numerous authors have been analyzing the issue of falls among older people. But the problem is that some elderly people are more prone to falling than others. An example, those that reside in areas with poor housing have a higher risk of falling compared to those residing in areas with better living conditions. Therefore the authors of this paper sought to understand the difference in fall rates between people that live in places with better care and health services. The data, including health, can provide social demographic, was based on the assessment of older people’s housing facilities. The authors also used the TUG test along with the administration of questions of whether one had fallen in the past year. Collectively about 595 people were engaged in the study. Therefore this study will be relevant for my research since it provides me with an understanding of how one’s living conditions and access to better care may increase or gradually reduce their possibility of falling. Burns, E., & Kakara, R. (2018). Deaths from falls among persons aged≥ 65 years—the United States, 2007–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(18), 509. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6718a1 According to the authors, most elderly people pass away due to falls leading to unintentional injuries. Statistics show that one in four older people die due to falling. Additionally, in 2016, a total of 29,600 residents aged sixty-five and above passed on whose deaths were directly related to falling, which was a 3% increase from the previous year. To prove this point, the authors analyzed all the death certificates within 50 US states for people aged over sixty-five additionally, they analyzed the data from the state and national trends on elderly mortalities. Based on the assessment, the authors realized that between 2007 and 2018, there was a 31% increase in older adults’ deaths. However, the falls were related to other factors, including chronic conditions, reduced activities, neurologic diseases, and arthritis. Therefore this research will be essential for my study since it provides me with summarized reports of mortality rates per state along with the major causing factors. Therefore through the research, we will understand which groups are more affected and potential remedies. Annotated bibliography. Morello, R. T., Soh, S. E., Behm, K., Egan, A., Ayton, D., Hill, K., … & Barker, A. L. (2019). Multifactorial falls prevention programmes for older adults presenting to the emergency department with a fall: systematic review and meta-analysis. Injury prevention, 25(6), 557-564. DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-04321 The primary purpose is to look at the use of Information Technology (IT) for falls prevention in the elderly. The article explains how information for IT has been beneficial, especially in improving the quality of special care in every healthcare organization. Also, IT knowledge has contributed to faster delivery of information than before. However, before introducing the information technology, there were some delays in delivering the data. Moreover, may be used to combine some of the strategies that can be used for fall prevention of the elderly and then use those privileges to improve quality care. Therefore, the gathered information for this article mainly concentrates on the methodology to complete the literature review explaining more on merits and demerits of preventions that are put in place to prevent falls for the elderly in the centered-setting for the patients. Barker, A., Cameron, P., Flicker, L., Arendts, G., Brand, C., Etherton-Beer, C., … & Hill, K. (2019). Evaluation of RESPOND, a patient-centred program to prevent falls in older people presenting to the emergency department with a fall: A randomised controlled trial. PLoS medicine, 16(5), e1002807. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002807 The book researches about elderly patients and how falls are prevented using the meta-analysis. One of the important things discussed in this article is how twenty different studies have met the risk factor criteria. However, this article develops some unique methods to create effective and proper fall prevention for elderly patients with dementia. Gender and age diagnoses like Parkinsonism, cognitive disorders, dementia and musculoskeletal problem are the examples that are used when performing this study. Therefore, this article was used to gather important information and analyses data concerning the fall prevention of elderly patients. The paper usually explains how effective data collection is essential, especially when coming up with ways of preventing falls in elderly patients and helps in improving healthcare quality by providing them with an effective way of fall prevention. Morris, R. L., Brand, C. A., Hill, K. D., Ayton, D. R., Redfern, J., Nyman, S. R., … & Barker, A. L. (2016). RESPOND: a patient-centred programme to prevent secondary falls in older people presenting to the emergency department with a fall—protocol for a mixed methods programme evaluation. Injury prevention, 22(2), 153-160. DOI: 10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041453 This book talks about coming up with tools that can be used to determine the vulnerability to fall that an older person was still staying in the facility of the patients. The developing device is the best method used in this article to prevent the fall through descriptive and explanatory studies of the qualitative approach. The article explains more on the fall prevention of older people and the methods the community shod uses to get rid of them. It is well explained in the article that healthcare facilities should come up with the best admission methods for elderly patients by reducing the falls on the admissions. This article was preferred because it addresses the vulnerability of older patients, and the risks are recognized.
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Image is from https://imperialwriters7.medium.com/research-project-why-limitations-of-the-study-should-come-at-the-end-of-the-project-3282c8c1e36 You have all been during such a great job on your last discussion and I want to share the important of objectively written conclusions. I am going to miss all of you! Please review this on the course webpage https://learn.snhu.edu/d2l/le/news/965074/4393704/view Excerpt from the template – keep black font prompts and remove red font reminders. Conclusions Strengths. What are the research studies’ strengths? Are there patterns in regard the strengths for the intervention evaluation? Limitations. What are the studies’ limitations? Are these patterns of limitations such as research design, methods, and sampling? Validity and reliabilities. Were the findings and conclusions reliable and valid, such as low LOE scores? Why or why not? Logically support the argument. Implications. What are the clinical implications of this research on the intervention into the healthcare programming for a hospital or health center? How will it affect the implementation of the intervention in relation to the outcome? Example of a well written conclusions from the attached integrative review: Conclusion Strengths. The strength of these reviews is included in a precise clinical question that is limited to patients with sepsis rather than critically ill patients as a whole. The strength lies in the focus of resuscitation rather than the maintenance of fluid therapy. Studies consisted of inclusions of patients in intensive care units and comprised of follow-up with the National Patient Registry using national patient identification numbers. Limitations. The patterns of limitations varied between studies reviewed based on population, study size, demographics and control or subgroups being most prevalent. Despite the present gaps and inconsistencies in each study, they were efficient in concluding the result of albumin-containing products versus saline in fluid resuscitation not demonstrating an increase in mortality rates in patients with sepsis. Validity and Reliability. The results of all studies reviewed deemed reliable and valid as indication of highest level of evidence (LOE). All studies presented with strong level I of evidence excluding Carlsen & Perner, (2011), which consists of LOE II. Studies revealed reliable as confirmation of strong sources, authors, and year published. Studies supported each other with aligning evidence and outcomes in relation to albumin versus saline resuscitation in patients with sepsis. Implications. The implications of this research reveal that there is no advantage to administering albumin versus saline in the reduction of mortality in sepsis patients. Based off of these conclusions, a sepsis patient can be treated with either available intervention. Factors such as population, demographic, or available access have no determination in which product is administered. However, if economic burden is present, the use of crystalloids should be of first choice due to the cost of albumin-containing products. Regards,
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Comparative effectiveness of exercise interventions for preventing falls in older adults: A secondary analysis of a systematic review with network meta-analysis. Sibley KM, et al. Exp Gerontol. 2021. PMID: 33186739 Review. Interventions to improve adherence to exercise therapy for falls prevention in community-dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis.Hughes KJ, et al. Age Ageing. 2019. PMID: 30358800 Comparisons of Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Tricco AC, Thomas SM, Veroniki AA, Hamid JS, Cogo E, Strifler L, Khan PA, Robson R, Sibley KM, MacDonald H, Riva JJ, Thavorn K, Wilson C, Holroyd-Leduc J, Kerr GD, Feldman F, Majumdar SR, Jaglal SB, Hui W, Straus SE.JAMA. 2017 Nov 7;318(17):1687-1699. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.15006.PMID: 29114830 Free PMC article. Review. Pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were conducted. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Injurious falls and fall-related hospitalizations. …CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Exercise alone and various combinations of interventions …    2 Cite      Share      Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Sherrington C, Michaleff ZA, Fairhall N, Paul SS, Tiedemann A, Whitney J, Cumming RG, Herbert RD, Close JCT, Lord SR.Br J Sports Med. 2017 Dec;51(24):1750-1758. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096547. Epub 2016 Oct 4.PMID: 27707740 Free article. Review. OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses have found that exercise prevents falls in older people. …SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS: Exercise as a single intervention can prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. …    3 Cite      Share      Multifactorial falls prevention programmes for older adults presenting to the emergency department with a fall: systematic review and meta-analysis. Morello RT, Soh SE, Behm K, Egan A, Ayton D, Hill K, Flicker L, Etherton-Beer CD, Arendts G, Waldron N, Redfern J, Haines T, Lowthian J, Nyman SR, Cameron P, Fairhall N, Barker AL.Inj Prev. 2019 Dec;25(6):557-564. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043214. Epub 2019 Jul 9.PMID: 31289112 Free article. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether multifactorial falls prevention interventions are effective in preventing falls, fall injuries, emergency department (ED) re-presentations and hospital admissions in older adults presenting to the ED with a fall. …    4      Exercise for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Sherrington C, Fairhall NJ, Wallbank GK, Tiedemann A, Michaleff ZA, Howard K, Clemson L, Hopewell S, Lamb SE.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 31;1(1):CD012424. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012424.pub2.PMID: 30703272 Free PMC article. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of any form of exercise as a single intervention on falls in people aged 60+ years living in the community. …The effects of such exercise programmes are …    5 Cite   Share    Association of Long-term Exercise Training With Risk of Falls, Fractures, Hospitalizations, and Mortality in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. de Souto Barreto P, Rolland Y, Vellas B, Maltais M.JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Mar 1;179(3):394-405. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5406.PMID: 30592475 Free PMC article. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and investigate the association of long-term exercise interventions (1 year) with the risk of falls, injurious falls, multiple falls, fractures, hospitalization, and mortality in older adults …    6 Cite      Share      Exercise interventions for older adults: A systematic review of meta-analyses. Di Lorito C, Long A, Byrne A, Harwood RH, Gladman JRF, Schneider S, Logan P, Bosco A, van der Wardt V.J Sport Health Sci. 2021 Jan;10(1):29-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2020.06.003. Epub 2020 Jun 7.PMID: 32525097 Free PMC article. We aimed to characterize the extent of this diversity and inconsistency and identify future directions for research by undertaking a systematic review of meta-analyses of exercise interventions in older adults. METHODS: We s …

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