Research paper Topic :”In terminally ill adult patients, what are the ethical implications of physician-assisted euthanasia compared to palliative care in terms of patient autonomy, relief of sufferin

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Research paper Topic :”In terminally ill adult patients, what are the ethical implications of physician-assisted euthanasia compared to palliative care in terms of patient autonomy, relief of suffering, and impact on families and healthcare providers?”

Groups topic is  Ethics of Euthanasia

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Research paper Topic :”In terminally ill adult patients, what are the ethical implications of physician-assisted euthanasia compared to palliative care in terms of patient autonomy, relief of sufferin
NR449 Evidence-Based Practice RUA: Analyzing Published Research Guidelines Purpose The purpose of this paper is to interpret the two articles identified as most important to the group topic. Course outcomes: This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes. CO 2: Apply research principles to the interpretation of the content of published research studies. (POs 4 and 8) CO 4: Evaluate published nursing research for credibility and clinical significance related to evidence-based practice. (POs 4 and 8) Due date: Your faculty member will inform you when this assignment is due. The Late Assignment Policy applies to this assignment. Total points possible: 200 points Preparing the assignment Follow these guidelines when completing this assignment. Speak with your faculty member if you have questions. Please make sure you do not duplicate articles within your group. The paper will include the following: Clinical Question (30 points/15%) Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work? Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. Purpose of the paper: What will your paper do or describe? ***Please note that although most of these questions are the same as you addressed in paper 1, the purpose of this paper is different. You can use your paper 1 for items 1 & 2 above, including any faculty suggestions for improvement provided as feedback. Use Evidence Matrix Table Template: Data Summary – (60 points/30%) Categorize items in the Evidence Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. References (recent publication within the last 5 years) Purpose/Hypothesis/Study Question(s) Variables: Independent (I) and Dependent (D) Study Design Sample Size and Selection Data Collection Methods Major Findings (Evidence) Description of Findings (60 points/30%) Describe the data in the Evidence Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. Compare and contrast variables within each study. What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.? Participant demographics and information. Instruments used, including reliability and validity. How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question? Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion (20 points/10%) Review major findings in a summary paragraph. Evidence to address your clinical problem. Make a connection back to all the included sections. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about. Format (30 points/15%) Correct grammar and spelling Include a title and reference page Use of headings for each section: Problem Synthesis of the Literature Variables Methods Participants Instruments Implications for Future Work Conclusion Adheres to current APA formatting and guidelines Include at least two (2) scholarly, current (within 5 years) primary sources other than the textbook 3-4 pages in length, excluding appendices, title, and reference pages For writing assistance, visit the Writing Center. Please note that your instructor may provide you with additional assessments in any form to determine that you fully understand the concepts learned. 2 Grading Rubric Criteria are met when the student’s application of knowledge demonstrates achievement of the outcomes for this assignment. Assignment Section and Required Criteria (Points possible/% of total points available) Highest Level of Performance High Level of Performance Satisfactory Level of Performance Unsatisfactory Level of Performance Section not present in paper Clinical Question (30 points/15%) 30 points 26 points 24 points 11 points 0 points Required criteria Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work? Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. Purpose of the paper: What will your paper do or describe? Includes 3 requirements for section. Includes 2 requirements for section. Includes 1 requirement for section. Present, yet includes no required criteria. No requirements for this section presented. Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary (Appendix A) (60 points/30%) 60 points 56 points 47 points 25 points 0 points Required criteria Categorize items in the Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. References (recent publication within the last 5 years) Purpose/Hypothesis/Study Question(s) Variables: Independent (I) and Dependent (D) Study Design Sample Size and Selection Data Collection Methods Major Findings (Evidence) Includes 7 requirements for section. Includes 6 requirements for section. Includes 5 requirements for section. Includes 4 or less requirements for section. No requirements for this section presented. Description of Findings (60 points/30%) 60 points 53 points 47 points 23 points 0 points Required criteria Describe the data in the Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. Compare and contrast variables within each study. What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.? Participant demographics and information. Includes 6 requirements for section. Includes 5 requirements for section. Includes 4 requirements for section. Includes 3 or less requirements for section. No requirements for this section presented. Assignment Section and Required Criteria (Points possible/% of total points available) Highest Level of Performance High Level of Performance Satisfactory Level of Performance Unsatisfactory Level of Performance Section not present in paper Instruments used, including reliability and validity. How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question? Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion (20 points/10%) 20 points 18 points 15 points 8 points 0 points Required criteria Review major findings in a summary paragraph. Evidence to address your clinical problem. Make a connection back to all the included sections. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about. Includes 3 requirements for section. Includes 2 requirements for section. Includes 1 requirement for section. Present, yet includes no required criteria. No requirements for this section presented. Format (30 points/15%) 30 points 26 points 23 points 11 points 0 points Required criteria Correct grammar and spelling Include a title and reference page Use of headings for each section: Problem Synthesis of the Literature Variables Methods Participants Instruments Implications for Future Work Conclusion Adheres to current APA formatting and guidelines Includes at least two (2) scholarly, current (within 5 years) primary sources other than the textbook 3-4 pages in length excluding appendices, title, and reference pages Includes 7 requirements for section. Includes 6 requirements for section. Includes 5 requirements for section. Includes 4 or less requirements for section. No requirements for this section presented. Total Points Possible = 200 points Appendix A EVIDENCE MATRIX TABLE Article References Purpose Hypothesis Study Question(s) Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) Study Design Sample Size & Selection Data Collection Methods Major Finding(s) 1 Smith, L. (2013). What How do educational support D-Dietary Quantitative N- 18 Focus Groups Support and education (SAMPLE should I eat? A focus for groups effect dietary modifications modifications Convenience improved compliance with ARTICLE) those living with diabetes. in patients with diabetes? I-Education sample-selected dietary modifications. Journal of Nursing from local support Education, 1(4), 111-112. group in Pittsburgh, PA 1 2 3 4 5 © 2022 Chamberlain University. All Rights Reserved NR449_RUA_Analyzing_Published_Research_v4_JUL22 3
Research paper Topic :”In terminally ill adult patients, what are the ethical implications of physician-assisted euthanasia compared to palliative care in terms of patient autonomy, relief of sufferin
NR449 Evidence-Based Practice RUA: Analyzing Published Research Evidence Matrix Table Article References Purpose Hypothesis Study Question(s) Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) Study Design Sample Size & Selection Data Collection Methods Major Finding(s) 1 (SAMPLE ARTICLE) Smith, L. (2013). What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112. How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes? D-Dietary modifications I-Education Qualitative N- 18 Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA Focus Groups Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications. 1 2 3 4 5 © 2021 Chamberlain University. All Rights Reserved NR449_Matrix_Table_V4_JUL22 1
Research paper Topic :”In terminally ill adult patients, what are the ethical implications of physician-assisted euthanasia compared to palliative care in terms of patient autonomy, relief of sufferin
Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Patients With Multiple Geriatric Syndromes Vera van den Berg, MA; Ghislaine van Thiel, PhD; Margot Zomers, MSc; Iris Hartog, MA; Carlo Leget, PhD; Alfred Sachs, MD, PhD; Cuno Uiterwaal, MD, PhD; Els van Wijngaarden, PhD S ince 2002, Dutch physicians are allowed to perform eu- thanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) when the due care criteria laid down in the Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act (hereafter referred to as the Dutch euthanasia law) are met. 1One of the 6 criteria for legally permissible EAS is that “the physician must be sat- isfied that the patient’s suffering is unbearable, with no pros- pect of improvement.” (For the other criteria, seeBox 1.) Each case of EAS is reported to the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Re- view Committees (RTEs). These committees assess and deter- mine whether the physician acted in accordance with the due care criteria in the Dutch euthanasia law. 2(See the eAppen- dix in theSupplementfor information about the RTEs’ re- view procedure.)Most Dutch EAS cases involve patients who suffer unbearably because of cancer in the last phase of life. In recent years, however, an increase has been reported in EAS performed in patients with dementia, psychiatric disorders, or multiple geriatric syndromes (MGS). 3,4 Following the Euthanasia Code 2018, a geriatric syndrome is defined as degenerative in nature, often occurring in older patients. With regard to MGS, such as sight impairment, hearing impairment, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance problems, or cognitive deterioration, the Dutch RTE guidance for phy- sicians states that these geriatric syndromes may cause unbearable suffering without the prospect of improvement “in conjunction with the patient’s medical history, life his- tory, personality, values and stamina.” 5(pp 23-24) Although IMPORTANCE The Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees (RTEs) reviewed and reported an increasing number of cases of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) requested by older people with multiple geriatric syndromes (MGS). Knowledge of the characteristics of cases of EAS for MGS is important to facilitate societal debate and to monitor EAS practice. OBJECTIVE To examine the accumulation of patient characteristics, geriatric syndromes, and other circumstances as reported in the case summaries of the RTEs that led to unbearable suffering associated with a request for EAS and to analyze the RTEs’ assessments of these cases of EAS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A qualitative content analysis was conducted of all case summaries filed from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2019, under the category MGS and published in a national open access database. These case summaries were selected by the RTEs from the total of 1605 reported cases of EAS in the category MGS. RESULTS The RTEs published 53 cases (41 [77%] female) under the category MGS. A total of 28 patients (53%) had always perceived themselves as independent, active, and socially involved. None of the patients suffered from life-threatening conditions. Multiple geriatric syndromes, such as visual impairment (34 cases [64%]), hearing loss (28 cases [53%]), pain (25 cases [47%]), and chronic tiredness (22 cases[42%]), were common. The request for EAS was often preceded by a sequence of events, especially recurrent falls (33 cases [62%]). Although physical suffering could be determined in all cases, the case descriptions found that suffering occurred on multiple dimensions, such as the loss of mobility (44 [83%]), fears (21 [40%]), dependence (23 [43%]), and social isolation (19 [36%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This qualitative study suggests that an accumulation of geriatric syndromes leading to a request for EAS is often intertwined with the social and existential dimension of suffering. This leads to a complex interplay of physical, psychological, and existential suffering that changes over time. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181(2):245-250. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6895 Published online December 7, 2020. Editorialpage 160 Supplemental content Author Affiliations:Department of Care Ethics, University of Humanistic Studies, Utrecht, the Netherlands (van den Berg, Leget, van Wijngaarden); Department of Medical Humanities, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands (van Thiel, Zomers); Department of Medical Ethics, Philosophy, and History of Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Hartog); Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands (Sachs); Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands (Uiterwaal). Corresponding Author:Els van Wijngaarden, PhD, Department of Care Ethics, University of Humanistic Studies, Kromme Nieuwegracht 29, 3512 HD Utrecht, the Netherlands ([email protected]). Research JAMA Internal Medicine |Original Investigation|HEALTH CARE POLICY AND LAW jamainternalmedicine.com(Reprinted)JAMA Internal MedicineFebruary 2021 Volume 181, Number 2245Downloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ on 06/07/2023 acceptance of EAS in cases of MGS is increasing in Dutch society, a majority of Dutch physicians are reluctant to grant a request for EAS on these grounds. 6Such requests are con- sidered to be much more complex than those made by patients with a terminal disease, not only in ethical terms but also in legal and medical terms. For example, when does an accumulation of geriatric syndromes cause unbearable suffering without prospect of improvement? Are physicians sufficiently equipped to assess this suffering? Are these requests caused by a trend of people increasingly regarding normal decline as a disease? This study aims to contribute to the further debate on deal- ing with requests for EAS from older persons with MGS. To this end, we (1) describe the patient characteristics, including the geriatric syndromes, that are associated with the request for EAS in cases of MGS; (2) explore which accumulation of syn- dromes and circumstances are associated with unbearable suf- fering in cases of MGS; and (3) attempt to gain a better under- standing of the RTEs’ assessment practice. Methods We studied all 53 anonymized case summaries filed under the category MGS from an open access database on the RTE website. 1These cases are selected by the RTEs from all 1605 2reported EAS cases in the category MGS from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2019. An overview of total numbers of deaths, EAS cases, and EAS cases of MGS per year is given inTable 1. 7-9 The Medical Research Ethics Committee Utrecht confirmed that our study was exempt from further ethical review, so no informed consent was required. All patient data were deidentified. This study followed the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) reporting guideline. The selection of cases for publication on the website is guided by the aim to give an overview of the spectrum of cases reviewed and to contribute to the understanding of complex or controversial cases among physicians and the general public. In a meeting with a member and the chairmanof the RTEs, we discussed the question of which cases are to be published in the national database. They confirmed that not only cases that address questions and dilemmas were selected but also cases representing situations that often occurred and were therefore considered common (oral communication, February 28, 2019). The length of the case summaries varies from 567 to 3130 words (approximately 2-6 pages), with a median of 1132 words. Among the more extensive case reports are the ones in which the RTE asked the physician (and sometimes also the consultant) for additional information. In these cases, the RTE had a face-to-face discussion with the physician (and consultant). We conducted a directed qualitative content analysis 10 of the cases using the analysis program ATLAS.ti, version 8.4.15 (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH). One author (V.v.d.B.) read all 53 documents completely to acquire an overall picture of the nature of the cases, repeat- edly comparing variables of interest in light of the main research question of the study. The coding scheme was developed by 2 authors (V.v.d.B. and E.v.W.) and discussed with another (G.v.T.). All documents were coded by 1 author (V.v.d.B.) based on the predetermined codes. New findings beyond the scheme and discrepancies were discussed and resolved among 4 authors (V.v.d.B., E.v.W., G.v.T., and M.Z.) and assessed by the whole team. Given the descriptive goals of this study, the emphasis was on frequency tabulation. Results The RTEs published 53 cases (41 [77%] female) under the category MGS, which were reported between 2013 and 2019. InBox 2, we first present 3 of the analyzed cases to illustrate how the combination of medical conditions and other char- acteristics accumulate to create a situation in which the physician became convinced that the patient was suffering unbearably without prospect of improvement. Key Points QuestionWhat are the patient characteristics and circumstances associated with the request for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in cases of multiple geriatric syndromes as reported in the case summaries of the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees? FindingsIn this qualitative study of 53 case summaries published by the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees, a combination of multiple geriatric syndromes, such as visual impairment, hearing loss, pain, and chronic tiredness, may have led, in most cases, to an accumulation of suffering on multiple dimensions, resulting in a request for EAS because of unbearable suffering. MeaningThis study suggests that unbearable suffering leading to a request for EAS in older persons without a life-threatening condition is often associated with a combination of medical, social, and existential issues. Box 1. Criteria for Due Care in the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act (2002) 1 Requirements physician must satisfy: A. Must be satisfied that the patient’s request is voluntary and well considered. B. Must be satisfied that the patient’s suffering is unbearable, with no prospect of improvement. C. Must have informed the patient about the situation and prognosis. D. Must have come to the conclusion, together with the patient, that there is no reasonable alternative in the patient’s situa- tion. E. Must have consulted at least one other, independent physi- cian, who must see the patient and give a written opinion on whether the due care criteria set out in (a) to (d) have been fulfilled. F. Must have exercised due medical care and attention in termi- nating the patient’s life or assisting in suicide. ResearchOriginal InvestigationEuthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Patients With Multiple Geriatric Syndromes 246 JAMA Internal MedicineFebruary 2021 Volume 181, Number 2(Reprinted)jamainternalmedicine.comDownloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ on 06/07/2023 Patient Characteristics Patient characteristics and circumstances are given inTable 2. All 53 patients were 80 years of age or older and 41 (77%) were 90 years of age or older. In 28 cases (53%), it was reported that patients had always perceived themselves as independent, ac- tive, and socially involved persons. Geriatric Syndromes All but 1 patient had more than 1 medical condition that caused multiple symptoms. In none of the cases were the health prob- lems caused by a life-threatening disease. Visual impairment was the most reported symptom (34 cases [64%]), followed by hearing loss (28 cases [53%]) and chronic pain (25 cases [47%]). Table 1. Numbers of Deaths, EAS Cases, and EAS for MGS Cases per Year a YearTotal No. of deaths No. of deaths per age categoryTotal No. of deaths by EAS b No. of deaths by EAS per age categoryTotal No. of EAS deaths for MGS 2013 141 245 80-89 Years of age: 49 583; ≥90 years of age: 25 2294829 NA 251 2014 139 223 80-89 Years of age: 48 182; ≥90 years of age; 25 6765306 NA 257 2015 147 134 80-89 Years of age: 51 283; ≥90 years of age: 27 9625516 NA 183 2016 148 973 80-89 Years of age: 51 665; ≥90 years of age: 28 6496091 80-89 Years of age: 1487; ≥90 years of age: 522244 2017 150 027 80-89 Years of age: 52 397; ≥90 years of age: 29 6406585 80-89 Years of age: 1634; ≥90 years of age: 653293 2018 153 328 80-89 Years of age: 53 203; ≥90 years of age: 30 4016126 80-89 Years of age: 1442; ≥90 years of age: 512205 2019 151 793 80-89 Years of age: 52 810; ≥90 years of age: 30 0896361 80-89 Years of age: 1628; ≥90 years of age: 504172Abbreviations: EAS, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide; MGS, multiple geriatric syndromes; NA, not available. aData are based on information from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics 7and the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees (http://www.euthanasiecommissie.nl). 8 b According to the Third Evaluation of the Euthanasia Law, 955% of the expressed requests for euthanasia are honored. It is not known how many of these cases are associated with MGS. Box 2. Descriptions of Cases of Multiple Geriatric Syndromes a Case 1 A woman in the age range of 90 to 100 years had progressive vi- sion loss and hearing impairment. She also experienced chronic pain in her legs, loss of mobility, and balance problems. A few weeks before the euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, she fell out of bed and suffered several fractures. Since that moment, her fear of a repeated fall made it difficult for her to sleep. Because of her condition, she felt lonely and cut off from her social environ- ment. She was not able to read or watch television and was not up to any activities anymore. Case 2 A woman in her 90s had been suffering from the consequences of osteoporosis for several years. Recurrent falls caused multiple frac- tures. A month before her death, she underwent surgery for a hip fracture. Her recovery did not go well, and the prognosis was bleak. Loss of mobility and pain prevented her from sitting com- fortably. The lack of any prospect of improvement, the loss of au- tonomy, being completely dependent, and the fear of losing clarity of mind together caused the unbearable suffering that was the medical grounds for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Case 3 A woman older than 90 years whose physical health was deterio- rating was dealing with hearing loss, severe fatigue, uncontrollable headaches, restless legs, and incontinence. All her life she had been a very independent, active, and engaged person. She hated accepting help from others, and because of her worsening hearing impairment, she was not able to participate in social activities. She felt excluded from society. She feared further physical decline, with her greatest fear being forced to move to a nursing home en- vironment. aThese case descriptions illustrate the most important findings of this study: (1) that falls often occur and can be a tipping point that leads to a request for euthanasia; (2) that the consequences of a single geriatric syndrome can, in some cases, be sufficient to grant a request for euthanasia; and (3) that suffering has multiple intertwined dimensions. Table 2. Patient Characteristics and Circumstances CharacteristicNo. (%) of cases (N = 53) Age group, y 80-89 12 (23) 90-100 41 (77) Sex Male 12 (23) Female 41 (77) Geriatric syndrome a,b Visual impairment 34 (64) (Chronic) pain 25 (47) Hearing loss 28 (53) (Chronic) tiredness or fatigue 22 (42) Osteoporosis 17 (32) Arthrosis 16 (30) Incontinence 14 (26) Decubitus 10 (19) Other characteristics Gloomy feelings 2 (4) Depressive feelings c 4 (8) Always independent 18 (34) Always active 10 (19) Refuses medical examination or medical treatment 7 (13) Recurrent falls 33 (62) Sequence of events 39 (74) aNumbers in this category do not total 53 because most patients had more than 1 health problem. bGeriatric syndromes that occurred in at least 10 cases are presented in this table. Other medical syndromes or diseases included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dizziness, heart failure, constipation, and fractures. cIn some of these cases, additional psychological examination was conducted because of the depressive feelings. In these cases, depression was not diagnosed. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Patients With Multiple Geriatric SyndromesOriginal InvestigationResearch jamainternalmedicine.com(Reprinted)JAMA Internal MedicineFebruary 2021 Volume 181, Number 2247Downloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ on 06/07/2023 Sequence of Events and Falls as Recurrent Themes In most cases, 2 types of circumstances were reported to be important for the patient’s wish to receive EAS. First, in 39 cases (74%), there was a sequence of events set off by an incident (the tipping point). The older patients in these cases had been dealing with multiple health problems for several years. The patients judged their suffering to be sufficient to request EAS after a decline in physical health because of the incident (eg, a fall, an infection, a hospitalization, or the loss of a close rela- tive). Second, partly overlapping the first circumstance, in 33 cases (62%), falls and their consequences were reported. Re- current falls caused complicated fractures in 7 cases (13%) and fear of falling in 11 cases (21%), which contributed to the ex- perience of unbearable suffering. Description of Elements of Suffering Each case summary contained a characterization of the patient’s suffering caused by MGS. These characterizations show an association between medical conditions and losses in several dimensions of life (ie, physical, psychological, social, and existential) (Table 3). In 44 cases (83%), loss of mobility was an element in the suffering of the patient. The loss of mobility ranged from not being able to go outside for a walk to being bedridden and inactive. Different kinds of fears were also an element in the experience of suffering. In addition, patients experienced social isolation and loneli- ness (19 [36%]). Not being able to read, watch television, or undertake meaningful activities was also an element of suf- fering in 19 cases (36%). Conjunction of Symptoms and Events The cases reported under the category MGS all described pa- tients whose suffering was caused by a combination of symp- toms attributable to an accumulation of syndromes. There was 1 exception, which demonstrates that a singular syndrome in combination with related experiences can be accepted by the RTEs as sufficient to meet the due care criterion of unbear- able suffering without prospect of improvement. Practical and Procedural Aspects All case summaries, in line with the standard procedure and the due care criteria stipulated in the Dutch law, stated that the physicians were convinced that the request was volun- tary, which means that the patients made their wishes known without pressure or undue influence from others, such as fam- ily members. In addition, all published cases reflect that the physician saw no alternatives for improvement. In a number of cases, the physician had consulted a geriatric psychiatrist to rule out a reversible depression. With the exception of 1 per- son who received assisted suicide, all patients received eutha- nasia. In 32 cases (60%), a general practitioner performed the EAS; in the other 21 cases (40%), a physician from the Exper- tise Center Euthanasia 3(formerly the End-of-Life Clinic) was involved. During the review process of 9 cases (17%), the RTEs had additional questions (25 in total) concerning the physician’s justification. Five questions were whether the patient’s un- bearable suffering originated in a medically classifiable dis- ease. The question regarding additional information at the re- quest of the patient was asked by the RTE in 5 cases. Three times the RTE wanted additional information on possible al- ternatives for the EAS, and 3 times they requested informa- tion on how the physician came to be satisfied that the pa- tient’s suffering was unbearable. Two times the RTE wanted to know more about the psychological aspect of the patient’s suffering, including the question regarding whether the pa- tient was suffering from depression. Examples of other ques- tions were whether consultation of an independent expert had been necessary and whether due medical care was exercised in the performance of the EAS. After obtaining additional information from the physi- cian who performed the EAS, the independent consultant, and other involved medical specialists, the RTEs concluded that the EAS was in accordance with the due care criteria in all but 1 case (eAppendix in theSupplement). In the case that was not approved, several due care criteria were not met. The physi- cian was not prosecuted in court. Compared with EAS in can- cer cases, cases of MGS had a greater chance of generating more questions during the review procedures of the RTEs. Physi- cians of the Expertise Center Euthanasia were 5 times more likely to be questioned. 4 Discussion The patients who received EAS because of MGS were the old- est old. Most (77%) of the patients were women. None of them had a life-threatening condition, and all except 1 patient with Table 3. Elements of Suffering a ElementNo. (%) of cases (N = 53) Loss of mobility 44 (83) Decline of mobility 16 (30) All day sitting in a chair 12 (23) Bedridden 9 (17) Unable to do anything 8 (15) Fears 21 (40) Fear of further physical decline 20 (38) Fear of losing independence 11 (21) Fear of falling 11 (21) Fear of having to move to a foster care home 10 (19) Dependence 23 (43) Becoming more dependent 19 (36) Completely dependent on others 8 (15) Social isolation 19 (36) Loss of meaning in daily life 19 (36) Unable to read or watch television 15 (28) No meaningful activities 12 (23) Loss of quality of life 9 (17) Loss of control 5 (9) Loss of dignity 6 (11) aNumbers do not total 53 because patients could list multiple elements of suffering. ResearchOriginal InvestigationEuthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Patients With Multiple Geriatric Syndromes 248 JAMA Internal MedicineFebruary 2021 Volume 181, Number 2(Reprinted)jamainternalmedicine.comDownloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ on 06/07/2023 a single geriatric condition had MGS, such as visual impair- ment and hearing loss. Pain and chronic tiredness were also common. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to describe case reports of EAS for MGS. Two studies 11,12 have analyzed cases of EAS for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Additional lit- erature on the experiences concerning end-of-life decisions for the oldest old is scarce. Available studies 13,14 reveal that fear of suffering, the wish to remain living at home, and the need for control are important elements in end-of-life decision- making. Although a medical condition associated with old age with symptoms could be determined in all 53 cases analyzed in this study, the case descriptions show that suffering oc- curred on multiple dimensions besides the medical one. This finding corresponds with the influential view of Cassell 15that the interconnectedness and the interplay among physical, psy- chological, social, and existential experiences are crucial for a deeper understanding of suffering. 16Suffering not only is a matter of pain and other physical symptoms but also has psy- chological, social, and existential dimensions. 15In addition, suffering has a temporal dimension: it can be triggered by be- coming aware of what the future holds. 17The present analy- sis shows that fearing the future, fearing further physical de- cline, becoming more dependent, or losing control over the situation are important aspects of suffering. This finding is in line with previous research 18into requests for EAS by pa- tients with end-stage cancer. In patients with MGS, these fears seem to emerge after a sequence of events. Furthermore, in 74% of the cases, an incident was reported as a decisive factor in the request for EAS. These incidents did not merely add to the accumulation of health problems. It has been observed that such incidents can be seen as a “tipping point, a warning of functional decline, dependence and isolation.” 19(p 904) In 33 of the 39 cases with incidents, this point concerned a fall that negatively affected different life dimensions. This finding con- firms previous studies in which falls were interpreted as a start- ing point for reflection on life 20and a factor associated with the development of a wish to die.21 Strengths and Limitations This study has strengths and limitations. Its primary strength is its exploration of the case summaries of the RTEs in the category of MGS. These summaries describe real EAS cases and are the only accessible source to study EAS in patients suffering from MGS. Nevertheless, this study is lim- ited by the fact that the published cases are a selection of a larger number of dossiers. For example, in 2018, the RTEsreviewed a total of 205 cases of EAS for patients with MGS. In addition, data were extracted from secondary official state documents. Such documents represent a shortened and specific version of realities, suitable for publication on an open access website 22 and therefore containing little social history. Occasionally, a spouse or children are men- tioned, but neither a person’s family structure nor living arrangement could be reconstructed. In addition, there is a risk of underreporting cases of eu- thanasia. Two partly overlapping sources of underreporting ex- ist. First, physicians sometimes misclassify their actions. Sec- ond, physicians who perform euthanasia do not always report this action to the RTEs. With regard to reporting to the RTEs, 81% of all cases of euthanasia were reported in 2015. 4Conclu- sions about the numbers and characteristics of patients with MGS among these misclassified and/or unreported cases can- not be drawn because specific data are not available. Conclusions According to these findings, an accumulation of geriatric syn- dromes alone is insufficient to explain the unbearableness of suffering that leads to a request for EAS in older persons with MGS. In this study, all cases referred to patients who had been suffering from MGS for several years. At a certain moment in time, the suffering resulted in a request for EAS. Given that pa- tients were already suffering from the geriatric syndromes for a long time, the findings suggest that it is not only the total number of these geriatric syndromes that is associated with unbearable suffering (and a granted request) but also the sum of these problems (often in combination with a tipping point incident) in conjunction with the patient’s medical history, life history, personality, and values that gives rise to suffering that the patient in question experiences as unbearable and with- out prospect of improvement. This finding also may also ex- plain why, in some exceptional cases, the medical dimension of the suffering can also be based on only 1 geriatric syn- drome that, in combination with social and existential prob- lems associated with that syndrome, may result in unbear- able suffering. In summary, in most cases, experiences in the social and existential dimensions are intertwined with the medical dimension of suffering. The variety of relevant ele- ments in these complex cases raises the question of what the role of these different elements should be in the assessment of requests for EAS and which expertise is needed for optimal care for these older persons. ARTICLE INFORMATION Accepted for Publication:August 31, 2020. Published Online:December 7, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6895 Open Access:This is an open access article distributed under the terms of theCC-BY License. © 2020 van den Berg V et al. JAMA Internal Medicine. Author Contributions:Ms van den Berg had full access to all the data in the study and takesresponsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Concept and design:van den Berg, van Thiel, Leget, Sachs, Uiterwaal, van Wijngaarden. Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data:van den Berg, van Thiel, Zomers, Hartog, Sachs, Uiterwaal, van Wijngaarden. Drafting of the manuscript:van den Berg, van Thiel, Sachs, van Wijngaarden. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content:All authors. Statistical analysis:Sachs,Uiterwaal, van Wijngaarden. Obtained funding:van Thiel, Sachs, van Wijngaarden. Administrative, technical, or material support:Hartog. Supervision:van Thiel, Leget, Sachs, Uiterwaal, van Wijngaarden. Conflict of Interest Disclosures:Ms van den Berg reports receiving grants from the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) during the conduct of the study. Dr van Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Patients With Multiple Geriatric SyndromesOriginal InvestigationResearch jamainternalmedicine.com(Reprinted)JAMA Internal MedicineFebruary 2021 Volume 181, Number 2249Downloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ on 06/07/2023 Thiel reports receiving grants from ZonMw during the conduct of the study. Ms Zomers reports receiving grants from ZonMw during the conduct of the study and outside the submitted work. Ms Hartog reports receiving grants from ZonMW during the conduct of the study. Dr Leget reports receiving grants from ZonMW during the conduct of the study and outside the submitted work. Dr Sachs reports receiving grants from ZonMw during the conduct of the study. Dr van Wijngaarden reports grants from ZonMw during the conduct of the study. No other disclosures were reported. Funding/Support:This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Health and funded by grant 643001001 from the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development. Role of the Funder/Sponsor:The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. REFERENCES 1.Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act. Dutch Dept of Justice; 2002. 2. De Jong A, van Dijk G. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: balancing autonomy and compassion. World Med J. 2017;63(3):10-15. 3. Evenblij K, Pasman HRW, van der Heide A, Hoekstra T, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD. Factors associated with requesting and receiving euthanasia: a nationwide mortality follow-back study with a focus on patients with psychiatric disorders, dementia, or an accumulation of health problems related to old age.BMC Med. 2019;17(1):39. doi:10.1186/s12916-019-1276-y 4. Onwuteaka-Philipsen B, Legemaate J, van der Heide A, et al.Derde evaluatie: Wet toetsing levensbeëindiging op verzoek en hulp bij zelfdoding [Third Evaluation: Law on the Review of theTermination of Life on Request and Assistance With Suicide]. Dutch Dept of Justice; 2017. 5.Euthanasia Code 2018: Review Procedures in Practice. Regional Euthanasia Review Committees; 2018. 6. Bolt EE, Snijdewind MC, Willems DL, van der Heide A, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD. Can physicians conceive of performing euthanasia in case of psychiatric disease, dementia or being tired of living?J Med Ethics. 2015;41(8):592-598. doi:10. 1136/medethics-2014-102150 7. StatLine. Deceased; cause of death (extended list), age, gender [article in Dutch]. Updated July 1, 2020. Accessed November 1, 2020.https:// opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/7233/ table?fromstatweb 8. Regional Euthanasia Review Committees. Annual reports. Accessed November 1, 2020. https://english.euthanasiecommissie.nl/the- committees/annual-reports 9. Rijksoverheld. Derde evaluatie Wet toetsing levensbeëindiging op verzoek en hulp bij zelfdoding. Accessed November 1, 2020.https:// www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/ 2017/05/23/derde-evaluatie-wet-toetsing- levensbeeindiging-op-verzoek-en-hulp-bij- zelfdoding 10. Hsieh H-F, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.Qual Health Res. 2005; 15(9):1277-1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687 11. van Veen SM, Weerheim F, Mostert M. Euthanasia of Dutch patients with psychiatric disorders between 2015 and 2017.J Ethics Ment Health. 2018;10:1-15. 12. Kim SY, De Vries RG, Peteet JR. Euthanasia and assisted suicide of patients with psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands 2011 to 2014.JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(4):362-368. doi:10.1001/ jamapsychiatry.2015.2887 13. Fleming J, Farquhar M, Brayne C, Barclay S; Cambridge City Over-75s Cohort (CC75C) Study Collaboration. Death and the oldest old: attitudes and preferences for end-of-life care-qualitativeresearch within a population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0150686. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0150686 14. Lloyd-Williams M, Kennedy V, Sixsmith A, Sixsmith J. The end of life: a qualitative study of the perceptions of people over the age of 80 on issues surrounding death and dying.J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007;34(1):60-66. doi:10.1016/j. jpainsymman.2006.09.028 15. Cassel EJ. The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine.N Engl J Med. 1982;306(11):639-645. doi:10.1056/NEJM198203183061104 16. Hartogh GD. Suffering and dying well: on the proper aim of palliative care.Med Health Care Philos. 2017;20(3):413-424. doi:10.1007/s11019-017- 9764-3 17. Cassell EJ. Recognizing suffering.Hastings Cent Rep. 1991;21(3):24-31. doi:10.2307/3563319 18. Ruijs CD, van der Wal G, Kerkhof AJ, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD. Unbearable suffering and requests for euthanasia prospectively studied in end-of-life cancer patients in primary care.BMC Palliat Care. 2014;13(1):62. doi:10.1186/1472-684X- 13-62 19. Kjølseth I, Ekeberg O, Steihaug S. “Why do they become vulnerable when faced with the challenges of old age?” elderly people who committed suicide, described by those who knew them.Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21(5):903-912. doi:10.1017/ S1041610209990342 20. Boyles M. Embodying transition in later life: “having a fall” as an uncertain status passage for elderly women in Southeast London.Med Anthropol Q. 2017;31(2):277-292. doi:10.1111/maq. 12320 21. Cheung G, Edwards S, Sundram F. Death wishes among older people assessed for home support and long-term aged residential care.Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;32(12):1371-1380. doi:10.1002/gps. 4624 22. Flick U.An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Vol 4. SAGE Publications; 2009. ResearchOriginal InvestigationEuthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Patients With Multiple Geriatric Syndromes 250 JAMA Internal MedicineFebruary 2021 Volume 181, Number 2(Reprinted)jamainternalmedicine.comDownloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ on 06/07/2023
Research paper Topic :”In terminally ill adult patients, what are the ethical implications of physician-assisted euthanasia compared to palliative care in terms of patient autonomy, relief of sufferin
0 Your Title Here Your Name (without credentials) Chamberlain University College of Nursing Course Number: Course Name Name of Instructor Assignment Due Date Title of Your Paper in Upper and Lower Case (Centered, Bold) This Template is a guide, please refer to your rubric for all criteria, and feel free to adjust the headings names. This is just an example of how to structure your paper using headings with some content from the rubric. Type your introduction here. Although the first paragraph after the paper title is the introduction, no heading labeled “Introduction” is used. This is a great place to utilize a scholarly resource, to emphasize why the topic is important. Problem This section will discuss your Clinical Question. Be sure to talk about these following rubric criteria below. Describe the problem: What is the focus of your group’s work? Significance of problem: What health outcomes result from your problem? Or what statistics document this is a problem? You may find support on websites for government or professional organizations. Purpose of the paper: What will your paper do or describe? Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary Include a few lines describing what you are going to discuss here as a brief introduction. When done write a sentence telling the reader to please see Appendix A. (This is at the end after your references and is your matrix table that you will complete). Synthesis of the Literature This is the section for Description of Findings. Describe the data in the Matrix Table, including proper intext citations and reference list entries for each article. (Delete this information) Variables Compare and contrast variables within each study. Methods What are the study design and procedures used in each study; qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method study, levels of confidence in each study, etc.? Participants Participant demographics and information. Instruments Instruments used, including reliability and validity Implications for Future Work How do the research findings provide evidence to support your clinical problem, or what further evidence is needed to answer your question? Next steps: Identify two questions that can help guide the group’s work. Conclusion Papers should end with a conclusion or summary. It should be concise and contain no new information. No matter how much space remains on the page, the references always start on a separate page (insert a page break after the conclusion so that the references will start on a new page). Review major findings in a summary paragraph. 1. Evidence to address your clinical problem. 2. Make a connection back to all the included sections. 3. Wrap up the assignment and give the reader something to think about. References (centered, bold) Type your reference here using hanging indent and double line spacing (under “Paragraph” on the Home toolbar ribbon). Refrences in alphabetical order. See your APA Manual and the resources in the APA section of Resources for reference formatting. Journal Citation Example: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy Website Example: Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL Format for Books: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available) Appendix A (Appendix is on its own page after references) Subject of the Appendix (Evidence Matrix Table: Data Summary is fine) Article References Purpose Hypothesis Study Question(s) Variables Independent(I) Dependent(D) Study Design Sample Size & Selection Data Collection Methods Major Finding(s) 1 Smith, L. (2013). What How do educational support D-Dietary Quantitative N- 18 Focus Groups Support and education (SAMPLE should I eat? A focus for groups effect dietary modifications modifications Convenience improved compliance with ARTICLE) those living with diabetes. in patients with diabetes? I-Education sample-selected dietary modifications. Journal of Nursing from local support Education, 1(4), 111-112. group in Pittsburgh, PA 1 2 3 4 5

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