STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MALAYSIA: WHAT IS YOUR OPINION? Note:- 4 pages does not include referencesAPA STYLEWith 6 reference (2019-2021)Please refer to the article provided

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STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MALAYSIA: WHAT IS YOUR OPINION?

Note:-

  1. 4 pages does not include references
  2. APA STYLE
  3. With 6 reference (2019-2021)
  4. Please refer to the article provided

STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MALAYSIA: WHAT IS YOUR OPINION? Note:- 4 pages does not include referencesAPA STYLEWith 6 reference (2019-2021)Please refer to the article provided
Jo urn al o f S ocia l S cie n ce 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22, 2 00 7 I S SN 1 549-3 652 © 2 007 S cie n ce P ub lic atio ns C orr esp on din g A uth or: Dr. H aslin da A bdull a h , G ra d uate S ch ool o f M an ag em en t, U niv ers iti P utr a M ala y sia , Fax : + 60-6 0 3-8 94 3-4 01 9 213 H um an R eso u rc e D ev elo p m en t S tr a te g ie s: T he M ala ysia n S cen ario Haslin da A bdull a h , R ad uan C he R ose a n d N are sh K um ar G ra d uate S ch ool o f M an ag em en t, U niv ers iti P utr a M ala y sia , M ala y sia A bstr a ct: T he so cio -e co no m ic d ev elo pm en t o f M ala y sia is g re atl y in flu en ced b y h um an re so urc es a ctiv itie s i n b oth th e p riv ate a n d p ub lic s e cto rs . B ut t h e p riv ate s e cto r, p artic u la rly t h e in d ustr ia l s e cto r i s t h e k ey p la y er f o r t h e c o untr y ’s e co no m ic g ro w th . I n a ck no w le d gin g h um an r e so urc es i m porta n ce i n t h is se cto r, th e co untr y ’s d ev elo p m en ta l p la n s d ev elo ped th ru sts th at su p port th e d ev elo pm en t o f h u m an re so urc es to b eco m e s k ille d , c re ativ e a n d in no vativ e. T his a rtic le e x am in es th e c o ncep ts a n d n atu re o f h u m an re so urc e d ev elo p m en t (H RD ) a t th e n ati o nal le v el in M ala y sia . In e x am in in g H RD f r o m th e n atio nal p ers p ectiv e, a r e v ie w o f d ocu m en ta ry e v id en ce f r o m r e le v an t G overn m en ta l r e p orts a n d d ocu m en ts w as u tili s e d . T he p la n s, p olic ie s, s tr a te g ie s, ro le s a n d re sp onsib ilitie s in H RD a t th e n atio nal l e v el w ere d is c u sse d . K ey w ord s: H um an r e so urc e d ev elo p m en t; n atio nal H RD ; M ala y sia IN TR O DUCTIO N Mala y sia gain ed its in d ep en d en ce in 1957 an d d urin g th is perio d, th e eco no m ic activ itie s of th e c o untr y d ep en d ed o n c o m moditie s su ch a s ru b ber a n d t in in w hic h it so are d th e eco no m ic gro w th of th e c o untr y . B ein g a co untr y hav in g vario us ra ces an d e th n ic g ro up s a n d m ost o f th e n ati v e b um ip utr a li v in g b elo w p overty tr ig gere d a ra cia l an ta g o nis m in 1 969. T he G overn m en t th en s tr u ctu re d a p olic y to r e d uce a n d e ra d ic ate po verty an d to re d uce so cia l dis p aritie s in w hic h th e pla n co vere d a sp an of tw en ty years b eg in nin g fr o m 1 970 to 1 990. A nd d urin g th is p erio d, t h e e co no m ic o f th e c o un tr y sh o w ed a ste ad y g ro w th f r o m b ein g a n a g ric u ltu re -b ase d e co no m y in 1 970s to i n d ustr ia l- b ase d e co no m y in 1 980s. W ith th e e co no m ic a ctiv it y i n flu en ced b y in d ustr ia lis a tio n, t h e G overn m en t r e alis e d t h at h u m an r e so urc es i n t h e i n d ustr ia l s e cto r a re t h e m ajo r d riv in g fa cto r fo r th e co untr y ’s so cia l an d e co no m ic gro w th . Hen ce, th e Govern m en t beg an p la n nin g a str a te g y to dev elo p hu m an re so urc es to s u p port th e co untr y ’s so cio -e co no m ic activ itie s. T hus t h is artic le aim s to ex am in e an d h ig hli g ht M ala y sia ’s H RD pla n s, polic ie s an d str a te g ie s in her m ove to d ev elo p h u m an re so urc es to su sta in e co no m ic g ro w th a n d co m pete in th e glo bal m ark et. The co untr y ’s d ev elo p m en t p la n s a n d p olic ie s a s w ell a s th e e co no m ic d ev elo p m en t w hic h l e ad t o w ard s t h e c o untr y ’s p la n s f o r a kno w le d ge-b ase d eco no m y w ith kno w le d ge-b ase d w ork fo rc e w ere s tu d ie d a n d r e p orte d . M ATER IA LS A ND M ETH OD A re v ie w o f G overn m en ta l s ta tis tic s, re p orts a n d o th er d ocu m en ts su ch as fr o m th e M in is tr y of Hum an R eso urc e s, Min is tr y of Fin an ce, Dep artm en t of S ta tis tic s, Min is tr y of In te rn atio nal Dev elo p m en t A uth o rit y , Prim e Min is te r’s Dep artm en t an d th e M in is tr y o f E ducatio n. In a d ditio n, c o nvers a tio ns w it h o ffic ers i n t h e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc es f o rm ed t h e b asis f o r d ata a n d i n fo rm atio n g ath erin g. D ev elo p m en t P la n s: M ala y sia b eg an fo rm al p la n nin g f o r d ev elo p m en t in 1 950 w ith th e p ub lic atio n o f th e D ra ft D ev elo p m en t Pla n of M ala y a. T here are tw o t y p es o f d ev elo p m en t p la n nin g d ocu m en t to d ate . T here a re one tw en ty -y ear an d tw o te n -y ea r outli n e p ro sp ectiv e pla n s an d ele v en fiv e-y ear dev elo p m en t p la n s in clu d in g th e D ra ft D ev elo pm en t P la n o f M ala y a w hic h w as fo r s ix -y ear d ura ti o n[ 1 ] . T he fiv e-y ear p la n s i n co rp ora te th e str a te g ie s, pro gra m mes an d pro je cts d esig ned to ach ie v e th e obje ctiv es of th e lo ng-te rm s tr a te g ic p la n s. A ll th e lo ng te rm s tr a te g ic o b je ctiv es o f t h e lo ng te rm p la n s a re e sse n tia ll y th e s a m e, th at is to a ch ie v e r a p id e co no m ic g ro w th a n d a tta in ed s ig n if ic an t i m pro vem en ts in its so cio -e co no m y, esp ecia ll y in a lle v ia ti n g p overty a n d s o cie ty r e str u ctu rin g. A nd th ese l o ng te rm p la n s a re d esig ned to a ch ie v e th e o bje ctiv es o f th e co untr y to w ard s beco m in g a unite d an d fu lly d ev elo ped natio n sta tu s in th e year 2020 und er th e c o untr y ’s ‘ V is io n 2 020’. J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 14 Tab le 1 : D ev elo p m en t P la n nin g D ocu m en t P la n T itle Dura ti o n D ra ft D ev elo p m en t P la n o f M ala y a* 1950 – 1 955 G en era l P la n o f D ev elo p m en t 1956 – 1 960 S ec o n d F iv e Y ea r P la n 1961 – 1 96 5 F ir s t M ala y sia P la n 1966 – 1 97 0 O PP1** 1971 – 1 990 S ec o n d M ala y sia P la n 1971 – 1 97 5 T hir d M ala y sia P la n 1976 – 1 980 F ou rth M ala y sia P la n 1981 – 1 98 5 F if th M ala y sia P la n 1985 – 1 99 0 O PP2*** 1991 – 2 00 0 S ix th M ala y sia P la n 1991 – 1 99 5 S ev en th M ala y sia P la n 1996 – 2 00 0 O PP3*** 2001 – 2 01 0 E ig ht M ala y sia P la n 2001 – 2 00 5 N in th M ala y sia P la n 2006 – 2 01 0 S ou rc e: E co n om ic P la n n in g U nit * S ix -y ea r d ura ti o n * * T w en ty -y ea r O utli n e P ro sp ec ti v e P la n * * *T en -y ea r O utli n e P ro sp ec tiv e P la n T he o b je c tiv e o f V is io n 2 020 to r e ach th e s ta n d ard o f liv in g o f in d ustr ia lis e d c o untr ie s b y th e y ear 2 020, h av e b ee n cle arly co m munic ate d an d d is se m in ate d to a ll th e o rg an iz atio ns a n d its e m plo yees. T he sp ecif ic o bje ctiv e of th e pla n is to accele ra te in d ustr ia l r e str u ctu rin g, te ch no lo gic a l u pgra d in g, h u m an re so urc e d ev elo p m en t a n d in d ustr ia l li n kin g. M ala y sia ’s E ig hth D ev elo p m en t P la n e m phasis e s o n sh if ti n g th e g ro w th s tr a te g y f r o m i n p ut- d riv en t o k no w le d ge-d riv en i n o rd er t o en han ce pote n tia l outp ut gro w th to accele ra te s tr u ctu ra l tr a n sfo rm atio n w it h in th e m an u fa ctu rin g a n d s e rv ic es se cto rs an d to str e n gth en so cio -e co no m ic s ta b ilit y . T he p la n a ls o fo cu se s o n p ro vid in g in it ia ti v es t o th e priv ate se cto r w it h th e pub lic pro vid in g th e i n stitu tio nal fr a m ew ork an d qualit y se rv ic e. Specia l e m phasis is giv en on in cre asin g pro ductiv it y an d e ff ic ie n cy th ro ugh H RD , en co ura g in g re se arc h an d d ev elo p m en t acti v it ie s as w ell as utiliz in g th e la te st t e ch no lo gie s, partic u la rly th e use of in fo rm atio n c o m munic atio n te ch no lo gie s (IC T)[ 2 ] . A nd th e la te st N in th M ala y sia P la n h as p la ced in vestm en ts in h u m an c ap ita l a s th e m ain th ru st a s it s s tr a te g y. T he a im o f th e 9 M P is d ev elo p a n e ffic ie n t a n d ta le n te d w ork fo rc e to i n cre ase overa ll natio nal pro d uctiv ity an d gro w th . In a d ditio n, in cen tiv es an d su p port to w ard s th e priv ate s e cto r to in cre ase p ro ductiv it y , e n han ce h um an c ap ita l a n d te ch no lo gy dev elo p m en t co ntin ues fr o m th e 8 M P[ 3 ] . E co n om ic D ev elo p m en t: F ro m in d ep en d en ce in 1 957 t o 1971, th e eco no m y of M ala y sia w as pre v io usly s u b ju gate d b y c o m moditie s s u ch a s r u b ber a n d tin . T he e x p ort o f th ese p rim ary c o m modit ie s c o ntr ib ute d to th e s te ad y eco no m ic gro w th of th e co untr y . Bein g a c o untr y h av in g m ulti – c u lt u ra l a n d m ulti – e th nic g ro up s, t h e B um ip utr a f o rm s t h e l a rg est g ro up s, a n d a ro und h alf o f th e B um ip utr a ho use h o ld s are liv in g belo w th e p overty lin e. The eco no m ic an d so cia l dis p aritie s f u elle d r a cia l a n ta g o nis m a n d m is u nd ers ta n d in g o ccu rs . T he e th nic r io ts in 1 969 le d to a r e v ie w in th e n atio nal d ev elo p m en t p olic y . A s tr u ctu re d e p is o dic p la n k no w n a s th e Fir s t O utli n e Pro sp ectiv e Pla n (O PP1) w as i n tr o duced , c o verin g a s p an o f tw en ty y ears fr o m 1 971 t o 1990. T he O PP1 w as fo rm ula te d to fo rm as a s u b str u ctu re fo r p olic ie s a n d str a te g ie s fo rm ula tio n fo r t h e N ew E co no m ic P olic y ( N EP). T he N EP has tw o go als , fir s t, is to re d uce an d e ra d ic ate p overty a n d s e co nd ly , to r e d uce a n d e ra d ic ate i d en ti f ic atio n of eco no m ic fu nctio n with ra ce. In p artic u la r, th e N EP is im ple m en te d to re d uce th e e co no m ic an d so cia l dis p aritie s of th e in d ig en o us M ala y s. The N EP in d uced a dra m atic in cre ase in g o vern m en ta l in te rv en tio n in th e M ala y sia n busin ess a n d s o cie ty . U nd er th e N EP, e m plo ym en t a n d b usin ess q uo ta s f o r B um ip utr a s i n cre ase d c o nsid era b ly . W ith th e im ple m en ta tio n o f th e N EP, th e M ala y sia n e co no m y sh o w ed a dra m ati c gro w th . Fro m 1971 to 1 990, th e c o untr y ’s a n nual a v era g e g ro w th in G NP w as 6 .8 p er c en t w it h th e m ajo r e x p ort o f p alm o il, ti m ber, r u b ber tin a n d o il. W ith th e P rim e M in is te rs h ip o f T un D r M ah ath ir in 1981, th e N EP sa w th e cre atio n of s ig nif ic a n t in cre a se in b um ip utr a c o m merc ia l, i n d ustr ia l a n d pro fe ssio nal co m muniti e s. The NEP sa w th e G overn m en t en co ura g in g th e gro w th of priv ate e n te rp ris e s a n d in ce n ti v es s u ch a s in vestm en ts c re d its , t a x e x em ptio ns a n d c re d it su bsid ie s w ere p ro vid ed to d ev elo p ex p ort m an u fa ctu rin g an d th e G overn m en t b eg an e m phasis in g d ev elo p m en t in th e m an u fa ctu rin g s e cto r. H en ce, th e d ev elo p m en t o f fr e e in d ustr ia l z o nes ( F IZ ) attr a cte d fo re ig n dir e ct in vestm en ts (F D I) p artic u la rly in th e e le ctr o nic s a n d e le ctr ic al in d ustr ie s. B y la te 1980s, m an u fa ctu rin g do m in ate d M ala y sia ’s e x p ort. M ajo r e x p orts in clu d ed e le ctr ic al a n d e le ctr o nic p ro ducts , ch em ic als , pro cess e d fo ods, te x tile s an d p ro cesse d t i m ber a n d r u b ber p ro ducts . A t th e sa m e ti m e, ste el, au to m obile an d heav y i n d ustr ie s were als o esta b lis h ed . Heav y In d ustr ie s C orp ora tio n of M ala y sia (H IC O M ) w as se t up to e n co ura g e in d ustr ia l div ers if ic atio n, gen era te m odern m an ufa ctu rin g activ itie s, an d fo ste rin g up str e a m i n d ustr ia l activ itie s. W ith th e su p port an d in cen ti v es f r o m th e Govern m en t, was ab le to se t se v era l a u to m obile co m pan ie s. O ne su ch co m pan y is P ro to n, P ero d ua a n d M oden as, t h e n atio nal c ar p ro je c t. I n J u ne 1 991, th e S eco nd O utlin e P ers p ectiv e P la n ( O PP2) w as e sta b li s h ed . O PP2 is th e fir s t p hase o f th e n atio n’s jo urn ey to r e alis e th e c o untr y ’s V is io n 2 020 to a ch ie v e a d ev elo ped n atio n s ta tu s. T he O PP2 p ro vid ed J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 15 th e pla tf o rm fo r th e im ple m en ta tio n of th e New D ev elo p m en t P olic y (N DP) u p on e x p ir a tio n o f N EP in 1 991. T he N DP still re ta in ed th e b ro ad g o als o f N EP b ut it a ls o f o cu s o n h ard co re p overty , e m phasis e o n th e r a p id d ev elo pm en t o f a n a cti v e B um ip utr a C om merc ia l a n d In d ustr ia l C om munit y (B CIC ), g re ate r re lia n ce o n t h e p riv ate s e cto r to a c h ie v e th e r e str u ctu rin g o bje ctiv e a n d th e str e n gth en in g of hu m an re so urc es d ev elo p m en t[ 4 ] . R ap id gro w th th ro ugh th e m id 1990s sa w th e e x p an sio n o f sh are in th e eco no m y o f th e B um ip utr a p opula tio n w it h o ut r e d ucin g t h e e co no m ic a tta in m en t o f o th er gro up s. D esp ite th e fin an cia l cris is in O cto ber 1 997 to 1 99 8, t h e h ig h g ro w th r a te w as m ain ta in ed w it h l o w in fla tio n, fu ll e m plo ym en t a n d p ric e sta b ilit y . A s U nite d S ta te s is th e m ain tr a d in g p artn er fo r e le ctr ic al a n d ele ctr o nic s p ro ducts , th e G overn m en t p eg ged th e e x ch an ge ra te o f M ala y sia n R in g git to U S dolla r to m ain ta in t h e M ala y sia n R in ggit. I n a d ditio n, th e la rg e in flo w o f th e fo re ig n d ir e ct i n vestm en t (F D I) in to th e m an u fa ctu rin g se cto r a d ded c ap acit y to th e e x p ort- o rie n te d in d ustr ie s. T his in clu d es t h e o il, g as a n d p etr o ch em ic al s e cto r a n d in vestm en ts in c ap ita l- in te n siv e an d hig h te ch no lo gy are as, all of w hic h attr a cts an d in flu en ces th e h ig h ra te in p riv ate i n vestm en t. A t th e sa m e ti m e, th e in flo w o f F D I w as n o t a ffe cte d b y t h e e co no m ic c ris is a s th e r e in vestm en ts w ere sta b ilis e d b y th e esta b lis h ed M NCs. T he m ajo r p ortio n of th e FD I in flo w s are m ain ly in th e hig h t e ch no lo gy a re as a n d th e in fo rm atio n te ch no lo gy (IT ) s e cto r. A s s u ch , th e c o untr y s a w a s te ad y g ro w th in th e G ro ss D om estic P ro duct ( G DP) f o r 1 999 a s 6 .4 p erc en t a n d i n cre ase d t o 8 .4 p erc en t i n 2 000[ 5 ] . T he sh if t fr o m an in p ut- d riv en str a te g y to a p ro ductiv it y -d riv en str a te g y durin g th e O PP2 perio d w as a ffe cte d b y th e e co no m ic c ris is in 1 997. H ow ev er, t h e O PP2 s a w s u ccess in a c h ie v in g i ts g o als w ith s tr o ng f u nd am en ta l d esp ite th is c ris is a n d e n ab le d th e c o un tr y t o re co ver an d gro w at an an n ual av era g e ra te o f 7 p erc en t p er a n nu m f r o m 1 991 to 2 000 . T he g ro w th w as b ase d o n in p ut- d riv en , p artic u la rly fr o m c ap ita l a s th e T ota l F acto r P ro ductiv it y (T FP ) w as 2 8.4 p erc en t o f G DP gro w th , th e co ntr ib uti o n of la b our w as 25.9 p erc en t a n d t h at o f c ap ita l w as 5 0.2 p erc en t. D urin g t h e 1 996 -1 997 p erio d , ex p orts gre w b y 7 .3 p erc en t p er a n n um b ut s u b se q uen tl y s lo w ed d ow n to 0 .5 p erc en t in 1 998 d ue to e co no m ic c o ntr a ctio n b ut a h ig her e x p ort g ro w th o f 1 4.1 p erc en t p er a n nu m w as a c h ie v ed d urin g t h e 1999-2 000 perio d la rg ely due to th e gro w th in w orld d em an d fo r e le ctr o nic p ro ducts a n d th e r e co very o f th e re g io nal e co no m ie s. A nd a ls o , d urin g th e 1 998- 2 000 perio d, th e go vern m en t ad opte d ad ditio nal m easu re s to in cre ase p ro ductiv it y , w hic h in clu d ed th e a llo catio n of more re so urc es fo r re se arc h an d d ev elo p m en t (R & D), ex p an sio n of ed ucatio n an d t r a in in g a n d t e ch no lo gy i m pro vem en ts . O PP3 is th e s e co nd p hase in a ch ie v in g th e V is io n 2 020 obje ctiv e. A nd und er th e O PP3, th e N atio nal V is io n P olic y (N VP) fo rm s th e b asis o f th e str a te g ie s a n d p ro gra m mes u nd er th e O PP3. T he o bje ctiv es o f th e N VP a re to d ev elo p M ala y sia in to a k no w le d ge-b ase d s o cie ty ; gen era tin g en d ogen o usly -d riv en gro w th t h ro ugh str e n gth en in g dom estic in vestm en t an d d ev elo pin g natio nal cap ab ilit ie s, w hile co nti n u in g to a ttr a ct F D I in s tr a te g ic a re as; in cre asin g th e d ynam is m o f ag ric u ltu re , man u fa ctu rin g an d se rv ic e s se cto rs t h ro ugh gre ate r in fu sio n of kno w le d ge; ad dre ssin g p overty an d eq uit y ow ners h ip of Bum ip utr a s in b usin ess se cto rs ; an d fin ally , re o rie n ta ti n g hu m an r e so urc e dev elo p m en t to su p port kno w le d ge-b ase d s o cie ty [ 6 ] . U nd er th e o ngo in g O PP3, in 2 001, th e G DP g re w a n a n em ic 0 .5 p erc en t d ue to g lo bal u ncerta in tie s b ut a b ette r ex p an sio n w as se e n in 2002 w it h 4.1 perc en t i n cre ase in th e G DP a n d su bse q uen tl y ris e s to 5 .3 in 2 003. T he p o sitiv e e x p an sio n w as d ue to th e g ro w th in t h e m an u fa ctu rin g s e cto r p artic u la rly in th e e le ctr o nic s a n d ch em ic al in d ustr ie s, co uple d w ith th e in cre ase in F D I an d ta x ex em ptio n. T he im ple m en ta tio n of th e A se an F re e T ra d e A re a (A FT A ) in 2 003 a ls o h elp s in t h ru sti n g t h e e co no m ic e x p an sio n. H en ce, t h e e co no m y c o ntin ues to g ro w b y a n a p pro xim ate o f 7 .6 p erc en t in 2 004. In ad d itio n, th is is d ue to th e str e n g th en in g o f m acro eco no m ic fu nd am en ta ls a n d th e fin an cia l se cto r t o geth er w ith th e str o ng p erfo rm an ce o f th e e co no m y d urin g t h e O PP3 p erio d , p artic u la rly i n 2 000[ 5 ] . W ith th e m atu rin g e co no m y, th ere is le ss re lia n ce o n la b our a n d c ap ita l in p ut a s a so urc e fo r g ro w th a s T FP c o ntr ib ute d 3 7.2 p erc en t, w hile th e c o ntr ib utio n o f l a b our is 2 1.5 p erc en t a n d c ap ita l c o ntr ib utio n is 4 1.3 p erc en t. T he in cre ase in T FP c o ntr ib ute s to th e g ro w th i n th e s tr u ctu ra l tr a n sfo rm atio n in u p gra d in g e co no m ic e ff ic ie n cy . T his in clu d es e m phasis o n im pro vin g s k ill s a n d m an ag em en t c ap ab ilitie s, i n cre asin g R & D s p en d in g a n d gre ate r use of te ch nolo gy an d in fo rm atio n t e ch no lo gy (IT ) in all eco no m ic se cto rs , in li n e w ith e ffo rts to d ev elo p th e k no w le d ge b ase d ec o no m y. In a d ditio n, th e g o vern m en t in cre ase s p ub lic i n v estm en t to i m pro ve t h e e d ucatio n a n d t r a in in g d eli v ery s y ste m . D ev elo p in g Mala y sia in to a Know le d ge-B ase d E co n om y: In ta n d em w it h th e o bje ctiv e o f O PP3 to a ch ie v e th e n atio n’s V is io n 2 020, th e d ev elo pm en t o f t h e co untr y in to a kno w le d ge-b ase d eco no m y (k – J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 16 eco no m y) is ra p id ly pro gre ssin g. T he co ncep t of k- e co no m y is th e g en era tio n a n d u tiliz atio n o f k no w le d ge i n co ntr ib uti n g to w ard s th e eco no m ic gro w th an d c re atin g t h e n atio n’s w ealt h . K no w le d ge i s c u rre n tl y t h e k ey d riv in g f a c to r f o r g ro w th s tr a te g y o th er t h an l a b our, c ap ita l, ra w mate ria l an d en tr e p re n eu rs h ip in p ro ductio n. T he n o tio n o f k no w le d ge-b ase d e co no m y is a b ilit y o f th e h um an c ap ita l to c re ate , in no vate , g en era te a n d e x p lo it new id eas as w ell as ap ply te ch no lo gy an d e x erc is e su p erio r en tr e p re n eu ria l sk ills . O rg an iz atio ns a re to b eco m e m ore k no w le d ge-in te n siv e w hen m ore i n d ustr ie s a re a d optin g th e c o ncep t o f k no w le d ge-b ase d w ork fo rc e. Acco rd in gly , th e eco no m y will be c h ara cte ris e d b y k no w le d ge-b ase d a ctiv itie s a n d h ig h – t e ch no lo gy in d ustr ie s a cco un tin g fo r a s ig nif ic a n t s h are o f e m plo ym en t, G DP a n d e x ports . H en ce, k no w le d ge w il l b eco m e a c o m modit y to b e tr a d ed , b esid es b ein g a f a cto r o f p ro ductio n. T he g o vern m en t h av e s ta rte d im ple m en tin g s e v era l i n itia tiv es to fa c ilita te th e sm ooth d ev elo p m en t o f k – e co no m y, p artic u la rly in th e a re as o f H RD , s c ie n ce a n d t e ch no lo gy (S & T), re se arc h an d dev elo p m en t, in fo – s tr u ctu re an d fin an cin g. E xam ple s of so m e of th ese i n itia tiv es in clu d e th e la u nch in g of th e N atio nal IT A gen d a (N IT A ) an d th e M ulti m ed ia S up er C orrid or ( M SC ). T hese in itia ti v es is to positio n its e lf in th e g lo bal- m ap of kno w le d ge-b ase d eco no m ie s an d to u nd erta k e m easu re s in e n su rin g th at e q uita b le a ccess is t a rg ete d to all se g m en ts of M ala y sia so cie ty . A s a w hole , k-e co no m y pro vid es th e m ea n s to m ain ta in s u sta in ab le r a p id e co no m ic g ro w th a n d c o m petiti v en ess i n th e m ed iu m a n d lo ng te rm . A s m en tio ned e arlie r, th e p riv ate se cto r w ill co nti n ue to b eco m e th e en gin e o f g ro w th in k-e co no m y w it h su p port fr o m th e pub lic s e cto r. A t th e sa m e ti m e, th e o bje ctiv e o f so cia l an d e co no m ic e q uit y w ill still b e a c ritic al e le m en t in th is n ew s ta g e o f e co no m ic d ev elo pm en t b ut w ith th e a d ded r e sp onsib ilit y o f n arro w in g th e k no w le d ge g ap a m ong v ario us g ro up s, b etw ee n u rb an a n d ru ra l c o m munitie s a n d acro ss th e re g io ns. H en ce, hav in g th e natio nal p olic ie s a n d p la n s in p la ce to d riv e h u m an re so urc e s, p riv ate a n d p ub lic s e cto r to a ch ie v e k -e co no m y, w ho is r e sp onsib le fo r c o ord in atin g a n d a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e p la n s, p olic ie s a n d str a te g ie s im ple m en te d ? T here fo re , t h e ro le an d re sp onsib ili ty of M in is tr y of H um an R eso urc e s i s v ita l t o b e d is c u sse d . H um an Reso u rce s Adm in is tr a tiv e Syste m : The a d m in is tr a ti v e s y ste m o f H RD in M ala y sia is g o vern ed b y th e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc es. T he o bje ctiv e o f t h e M in is tr y is to d ev elo p a c o m peti tiv e w ork fo rc e o f i n d ustr ia l h arm ony a n d s o cia l ju stic e. T his o bje ctiv e is k eep in g w it h G overn m en t’ s p olic y u nd er N V P. A s in t a b le 1 , th ere a re s e v era l d ep artm en ts , s ta tu to ry b odie s, c o m pan y a n d A dvis o ry C ouncil u nd er th e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc es h ead ed b y th e M in is te r o f H um an R eso urc e s. T here a re n in e d ep artm en ts , tw o sta tu to ry , o ne co m pan y an d fo ur Advis o ry Councils . These a u th o ritie s are re sp onsib le fo r a who le ra n ge of a ctiv itie s re la te d to hu m an re so urc es. For in sta n ce, H um an R eso urc es D ev elo p m en t C ouncil is in vo lv ed in t h e d ev elo p m en t a n d u p gra d in g th e s k ills o f w ork ers in t h e m an ufa ctu rin g a n d s e rv ic e s s e cto r. A nd t h e N atio nal V ocatio nal Tra in in g Council is in vo lv ed with th e d ev elo p m en t, tr a in in g an d ed ucatio n of hu m an r e so urc es i n s p ecia lis e d t e c h n ic al s k ills [ 5 ] . B ro ad ly , t h e d ep artm en ts , sta tu to ry b odie s, co m pan y an d ad vis o ry c o uncil s t h at f a ll s u nd er t h e h ie ra rc h y o f t h e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc es, g o vern s th e c o untr y ’s e m plo ym en t s y ste m s an d fu nctio ns su ch as re cru it m en t, se le ctio n, i n d ustr ia l an d em plo ym en t re la tio ns, tr a in in g an d d ev elo p m en t a n d a ls o th e sa fe ty a n d h ealt h o f h um an r e so urc es i n t h e w ork in g e n vir o nm en t. I n a d ditio n to th e g o vern in g a u th o ritie s a n d b odie s u nd er th e Min is tr y of Hum an Reso urc es, oth er M in is tr ie s are als o part of th e sy ste m in th e d ev elo p m en t of hum an re so urc es. For in sta n ce, th e M in is tr y of E ducatio n, M in is tr y of E ntr e p re n eu rs h ip a n d M in is tr y of Y outh an d S ports , an d M in is tr y of H ig her E ducatio n. T hese m in is tr ie s p la y a m ajo r r o le in s u p portin g th e dev elo p m en t of hu m an re so urc es in M ala y sia by pro vid in g th e hu m an cap ita l w it h pre – e m plo ym en t kno w le d ge an d sk ills re q uir e d by i n d ustr ie s. H RD Polic ie s an d L eg is la tio n : The G overn m en t’ s p la n s of dev elo pin g th e eco no m y base d on k no w le d geab le w ork fo rc e are cle arly ap pare n t und er t h e N atio nal V is io n P olic y ( N VP). O ut o f s e v en c ritic al t h ru sts in th e N VP, tw o th ru sts sp ecif ic all y re la te s to H RD : 1 ) d ev elo pin g a k no w le d ge-b ase d e co no m y a s a s tr a te g ic m ove to r a is e th e v alu e-a d ded o f a ll e co no m ic s e cto rs a n d o pti m iz in g th e b ra in p o w er o f th e n atio n; a n d 2) str e n gth en hu m an re so urc e dev elo p m en t to p ro duce a co m pete n t, pro ductiv e an d kno w le d geab le w ork fo rc e J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 17 Fig . 1 : H um an R eso u rc es a n d H RD A dm in is tr a tiv e S yste m M in is tr y o f H um an R eso u rc es D ep artm en t Sta tu to ry B od ie s Com pan y Advis o ry C ou n cil · M an pow er D ep artm en t · Lab ou r D ep artm en t ( P . M ala y sia ) · Lab ou r D ep artm en t ( S ab ah ) · Lab ou r D ep artm en t ( S ara w ak ) · In dustr ia l C ou rt · In dustr ia l R ela ti o n s D ep artm en t · Tra d e U nio n A ffa ir s D ep artm en t · O ccu p atio n al S afe ty a n d H ea th D ep artm en t · N atio n al V ocatio nal T ra in in g C oun cil · Socia l S ec u rit y O rg an is a tio n ( S O CSO ) · H um an R eso u rc es D ev elo p m en t C oun cil · N atio n al I n stitu te o f O ccu p atio n al S afe ty a n d H ea lt h · N atio n al L ab ou r A dvis o ry C oun cil · N atio n al C ou ncil f o r O ccu p atio n al S afe ty a n d H ea lt h · N atio n al V ocatio nal T ra in in g C oun cil · W ag es C ou ncil S ou rc e: M in is tr y o f H um an R eso u rc e D ep artm en t, S ta tu to ry B od ie s, C om pan y a n d A dvis o ry C ou ncil i n b old a re d ir e c tly i n volv ed i n H RD M ore o ver, b esid es th e th ru sts u nd er th e N VP, th e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc e s h av e its o w n p olic y to s u p port th e th ru sts . T he h u m an re so urc es d ev elo p m en t p olic y u nd er th e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc es f o cu se s o n su p portin g o rg an iz a tio ns to atta in im pro vem en t in w ork er p ro ductiv it y , e ffic ie n cy , v alu e-a d ded o pera tio ns a n d c o m petiti v en ess b oth d o m estic all y a n d g lo ball y [ 2 ] . T he Govern m en t und er Min is tr y of Hum an R eso urc e s h av e i m ple m en te d t h e H um an R eso urc es A ct i n 1 992 to s u p port th e G overn m en t’ s p la n s a n d p olic ie s f o r hu m an re so urc es dev elo pm en t. This Act is e m po w ere d t o i m pose a n d c o lle ct h um an r e so urc e s l e v y f r o m em plo yers to pro m ote em plo yees tr a in in g an d d ev elo p m en t. T he A ct is im ple m en te d to p o ol a ll le v y c o lle cte d fr o m em plo yers to esta b lis h a Hum an R eso urc e s D ev elo p m en t F und ( H RD F und ). I n a d ditio n, t h e e sta b li s h m en t o f t h e P em ban g unan S um ber M an usia B erh ad (P SM B) (H um an Reso urc e s Dev elo p m en t C ouncil) to ad m in is te r th e H RD F und is o ne o f th e p rio rity a n d p urp ose o f t h e A ct[ 2 ] . S ta tu to ry B od ie s H RD C ou ncil: t h e o bje ctiv e o f P SM B i s t h e i m positio n a n d co lle ctio n o f hu m an re so urc es d ev elo p m en t le v y f o r th e p urp ose o f p ro m otin g e m plo yee s’ tr a in in g a n d t h e e sta b li s h m en t a n d a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e H RD F und . T he m ain fu nctio n o f th e P SM B is m an ag in g th e H RD F und th ro ugh d esig nin g th e te rm s a n d c o nd itio ns u nd er w hic h an y fin an cia l assis ta n ce or oth er ben efits are g iv en . T he P SM B is als o re sp onsib le to asse ss an d d ete rm in e th e ty p es a n d e x te n t o f e m plo yee s’ tr a in in g a n d re tr a in in g in k eep in g w ith h um an re so urc es n eed s i n t h e i n d ustr ie s. N atio n al V oca tio n al T ra in in g C ou ncil: T he N atio nal V ocatio nal T ra in in g C ouncil ( N VTC ) o r l o cally k no w n a s M ajlis Latih an V okasio nal K eb an g sa an (M LV K) w as esta b li s h ed und er th e Min is tr y of Hum an R eso urc e s o n 2 M ay , 1 989. T he p urp ose o f th e C ouncil i s to p ro m ote a n d c o ord in ate s k ill s tr a in in g s tr a te g y a n d p ro gra m mes to su p port M ala y sia ’s te c h no lo gic al an d e co no m ic dev elo p m en t nee d s. M LV K is prim aril y c o ncern ed wit h esta b li s h in g a co ord in ate d sk il ls t r a in in g s y ste m i n l i n e w it h M ala y sia ’s g o als a n d n eed s; p ro m oti n g th e dev elo p m en t of sk il ls tr a in in g an d c ertif y in g s k ill s c o m pete n ce. I n esta b lis h in g a co ord in ate d sk ill s tr a in in g s y ste m s, c u rre n tl y f o ur m ain M in is tr ie s h av e b een g iv en t h e re sp onsib ilit y in carr y in g o ut th e p re -e m plo ym en t s k il ls tr a in in g, i.e . M in is tr y of Hum an Reso urc es t h ro ugh th e M an p o w er D ep artm en t, th e M in is tr y of E ducatio n th ro ug h its T ech nic al E ducatio n D ep artm en t, T he Min is tr y of Entr e p re n eu r Dev elo p m en t an d M in is tr y o f Y outh a n d S ports . O n th e o th er e n d , in th e p riv ate s e cto r, p re -e m plo ym en t s k il ls tr a in in g is c arrie d o ut by th e m an y tr a in in g pro vid ers w hic h co vers a w id e-r a n gin g o f c o urs e s a n d q uali f ic atio ns. I n p ro m otin g th e d ev elo p m en t o f s k il ls tr a in in g, it i s th e re sp onsib ili ty of th e M LV K to pro m ote an d c o ord in ate th e sk ills tr a in in g. B oth th e pub lic an d p riv ate se cto rs h av e a v ib ra n t p artn ers h ip in en su rin g t h at M LV K is a tt u ned to th e n eed s o f th e in d ustr y . A nd a t th e sa m e ti m e, in se tti n g sta n d ard s fo r a sk ille d w ork fo rc e, M LV K se ek s to e n su re th at sk il ls tr a in in g p ro gra m mes a re b en ch m ark ed a g ain st a c tu al w ork p la ce r e q uir e m en ts , as re q uir e d in th e co m pete n cy -b ase d t r a in in g a p pro ach . T his b en ch m ark in g is b y d ev elo pin g t h e N atio nal O cc u p atio nal S kills S ta n d ard (N OSS). B y u tili s in g N OSS as th e basis fo r deliv erin g tr a in in g p ro gra m mes, tr a in in g pro vid ers can en su re th at th eir t r a in ees m ee t th e w ork p la ce c o m pete n cy re q uir e m en ts e x p ecte d by M ala y sia n In d ustr ie s. This is becau se t r a in in g pro vid ers or in stitu tio ns ca n be giv en a ccre d ita tio n und er th e N ati o nal Skills C erti f ic atio n J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 18 S yste m if th e tr a in in g pro gra m mes pro vid ed are of N OSS q ualit y . F in an cia l S up port H RD F unds: T he H um an R eso urc es D ev elo p m en t A ct, 1 992 a s d eta ile d a b ove p ro vid es fo r th e e sta b lis h m en t o f H um an R eso urc es D ev elo pm en t F und (H RD F und ). T his f u nd w as i m ple m en te d i n J a n uary 1 993 a n d a cts a s a c en tr a l p ool o f f u nd s th at m ak e u p H um an R eso urc es D ev elo p m en t Lev ie s co lle cte d fr o m all em plo yers . U nd er th e A ct, e ach a n d e v ery e m plo yer is lia b le to p ay H um an Reso urc es D ev elo pm en t le v y in re sp ect of e v ery em plo yee at th e ra te of one perc en t of th e m onth ly w ag es o f th e e m plo yee. F or s m alle r in d ustr ie s w it h n o t m ore th an 4 9 e m plo yees a n d a p aid -u p c ap ita l o f le ss th an R M 2.5 m illio n is g iv en th e o ptio n to a le v y a t 0 .5 p erc en t a n d th e re m ain in g is su b sid is e d b y th e C ouncil. This in cen ti v e is to su p port th e sm alle r i n d ustr ie s in en su rin g th at em plo yees are giv en th e t r a in in g n eed ed . T he obje ctiv e of hav in g th e H RD Fund is to p ro vid e fin an cia l assis ta n ce to defr a y part of th e t r a in in g co sts fo r all re tr a in in g an d sk ill s up gra d in g p ro gra m mes und erta k en by em plo yers . It is no t a s u b sid y s c h em e b ut r a th er a c o st- s h arin g e ffo rt b etw ee n e m plo yers a n d th e H RD C ouncil. B y e sta b li s h in g th e H RD F, it is th e G overn m en t’ s in itia ti v e to e n co ura g e t h e e m plo yers in th e m an ufa c tu rin g a n d s e rv ic es s e cto r t o re tr a in an d u p gra d e th e sk ill s o f th e e m plo yees in c o nso nan ce with th e need s of th e busin ess an d i n d ustr ia lis a tio n s tr a te g y o f t h e c o untr y . T he fu nd s a re u se d fo r p ro m otin g, d ev elo pin g a n d u p gra d in g of em plo yee s, in clu siv e of pro vis io n of t r a in in g fa cilitie s. It is a ls o u se d a s fin an cia l a ssis ta n ce t o e m plo yers b y w ay o f g ra n ts o r lo an s f o r th e p urp ose o f em plo yees’ tr a in in g. The fin an cia l assis ta n ce p ro vid ed a ls o in clu d es s u b sid is in g t h e c o sts i n cu rre d b y e m plo yers in th e tr a in in g o r re tr a in in g o f em plo yees. O th er th an w ork in g em plo yees, th e fu nd s are als o a v aila b le fo r a ssis ti n g th e re tr e n ch ed w ork ers in te rm s o f t r a in in g a n d s k ills u p gra d in g. S kill s D ev elo p m en t F und s: T he G overn m en t e m phasis o n s k ill s tr a in in g is a p pare n t f ro m e arly 1 990s, f r o m th e S ix th M ala y sia P la n (6 M P) rig h t to th e c u rre n t N in th M ala y sia Pla n (9 M P). D urin g th e 6M P, RM 612 .2 m illio n w as a llo cate d fo r s k il ls tr a in in g a lo ne a n d th is h as in cre ase d durin g Sev en th Mala y sia Pla n to R M 1.6 62 billio n an d th e E ig hth M ala y sia P la n , th e a llo catio n fo r tr a in in g is R M 4 billio n[ 8 ] . T he S kills D ev elo p m en t F und D iv is io n (S D F) is re sp onsib le fo r t h e a d m in is tr a tio n o f f u nd s fo r s k ills tr a in in g u nd er th e M in is tr y o f H um an R eso urc es. E duca tio n a n d T ra in in g H ig h er E duca tio n : T he M ala y sia n G overn m en t is a ls o e m phasis in g on hig her ed ucatio n in nurtu rin g a k no w le d geab le an d sk il le d w ork fo rc e. T his is cle arly s e en i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f a v arie ty o f i n stit u tio ns f r o m u niv ers itie s, univ ers it y co lle g es, po ly te ch nic s, c o m munit y co lle g es, tr a in in g co lle g es an d co lle g es. T hese in stit u tio ns allo w fo r nu m ero us optio ns fo r h ig her e d uca tio n in th e p ro fe ssio nal, s e m i- p ro fe ss io nal o r s p ecif ic s k ills a re as[ 9 ] . A s m en tio ned earlie r, in kee p in g w ith ac h ie v in g t h e k no w le d ge-b ase d w ork fo rc e, th e le v el o f e d uca tio n o f th e w ork ers is very im porta n t. T he w ork ers are e n co ura g ed to h av e te rtia ry u niv ers ity e d ucatio n o r a t l e ast te c h n ic al a n d v o catio nal e d ucatio n. T he n um ero us i n stitu tio ns esta b li s h ed in M ala y sia su p p ort th ese s o ptio ns by pro vid in g a varie ty of in fo rm atio n t e ch no lo gy (IT ) an d in fo rm atio n an d co m m unic atio n t e ch no lo gy (I C T) re la te d , en gin eerin g, an d busin ess r e la te d co urs e s in th e certif ic ate , d ip lo m a an d d eg re e l e v el. I n ad ditio n, th ere is a popula r dem an d fo r a p ro fe ssio nal d is tin ctio n o f M BA le v el o f e d ucatio n in t h e i n d ustr ie s i n w hic h t h ese c o urs e s a re a v aila b le i n a ll t h ese in stit u tio ns. It is kno w n th at M BA le v el of e d ucatio n hav e work ers who und ers ta n d th e f u nd am en ta l o f th e b usin ess c o ncep t a n d s tr a te g ie s a n d t h ey a re s e e n to b e v ery r e le v an t in th e c u rre n t g lo ball y c o m peti tiv e b usin ess e n vir o nm en t. T ech nic a l E duca tio n a n d V oca tio n al T ra in in g: O th er t h an te rtia ry u niv ers ity e d ucatio n, a p oly te ch nic s y ste m o f ed ucatio n has been se t up by th e M in is tr y of E ducatio n to m eet th e gro w in g dem an d fo r sk ille d m an p o w er. A s o f e n d 2 003, th ere a re 1 6 p o ly te c h nic s a ll o ver t h e c o untr y w hic h o pera te u nd er t h e M in is tr y o f E ducatio n, o ffe rin g te c h nic al a n d v o catio nal e d ucatio n. T hese poly te ch nic s are m an ag ed by th e M in is tr y of T ech nic al E ducatio n D ep artm en t (J a b ata n P en d id ik an T ek nik al) ( J P T ). T he ro le o f J P T is to c o ncep tu alis e th e p olic y a n d d ir e ctio n of te ch nic al an d vo catio nal ed ucatio n d ev elo p m en t to c o m ply w it h t h e n eed s o f in d ustr ia l a n d n atio nal dev elo p m en t. JP T als o en su re th at te c h nic a l a n d v o catio nal e d ucatio n a re s u cce ss fu ll y im ple m en te d a n d c o ord in ate d , a s w ell a s d esig nin g, d ev elo pin g a n d e v alu atin g th e e ffe cti v en ess o f te ch nic al a n d v o catio nal e d ucatio n cu rric u lu m . A ll th e p ro gra m mes o ffe re d at J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 19 th e poly te c h nic s fo r sc h o ol- le a v ers are fu ll – ti m e at c ertif ic ate an d dip lo m a le v els . The dura tio n fo r c ertif ic ate c o urs e s is tw o y ea rs a n d th re e y ears fo r th e d ip lo m a co urs e s. How ev er, th ere are part- ti m e p ro gra m mes fo r w ork in g in d iv id uals w ho w ere fo rm er p oly te c h nic g ra d uate s. T hese poly te c h n ic s offe re d a very hig h le v el of e d ucatio n a n d tr a in in g in sc ie n ce a n d te ch no lo gy. T he c o urs e s offe re d co vere d a ra n ge of te c h nic a l s p ecia litie s, fo r ex am ple , ele ctr ic al an d ele ctr o nic s e n gin eerin g, m ec h an ic al e n g in eerin g, c iv il e n gin eerin g, b uild in g se rv ic es en gin eerin g, IT , fo od te ch no lo gy, a rc h ite ctu re , an d oth ers . Oth er th an te ch nic al s p ecia litie s, th e p oly te c h n ic s a ls o o ffe re d p ro gra m mes o n busin ess re la te d su ch as ban kin g, acco unta n cy , h o sp ita lit y man ag em en t an d fa sh io n desig nin g. C urre n tl y , th ese i n sti tu tio ns a re a ls o o ffe rin g c o urs e s o n E nglis h l a n guag e. T ra in in g Sch em es: U p to m id 2004, th ere are 18 t r a in in g sc h em es av aila b le und er th e H RD C ouncil. T hese s c h em es ra n ges fr o m th e m ain fu nd in g sc h em e, c o nsu lta n cy se rv ic e s, co m pute r an d IC T re la te d , a p pre n tic esh ip s, s c h em e f o r r e tr e n ch ed w ork ers a n d th e u nem plo yed , a n d g ra d uate tr a in in g s c h em e. T he li s t o f s c h em es i s a s b elo w : · The S B L ( S kim B an tu an L ati h an ) S ch em e · The PR O LU S (P ro gra m me Lati h an yan g d ilu lu sk an ) S ch em e · The P L T ( P ela n L ati h an T ah u nan ) S ch em e · Ju ru p la n S ch em e ( C onsu lta n cy S ch em e f o r T ra in in g N eed s A naly sis ) · SM I T ra in in g N eed s A naly sis C onsu lta n cy S ch em e · The P E R LA (P erja n jia n L atih an d en gan P en yed ia L ati h an ) S ch em e · The A ppre n tic esh ip S ch em e · SB L P re -A ppro ved S ch em e ( S kim B an tu an L ati h an P ra K elu lu sa n ) · SB L-K H AS S ch em e · Gro up T ra in in g S ch em e · Jo in t T ra in in g S ch em e · Purc h ase o f T ra in in g E quip m en t an d P ro vis io n o f T ra in in g R oo m · Purc h ase o f P ers o nal C om pute rs · Com pute r-B ase d T ra in in g ( C BT) S ch em e · Retr e n ch ed W ork ers an d U nem plo ym en t T ra in in g S ch em e · Work ers ’ I C T T ra in in g S ch em e · In fo rm atio n Tech no lo gy & Com pute r-B ase d T ra in in g S ch em e · Gra d uate T ra in in g S ch em e T he m ain fu nd in g s c h em e c alle d T he S B L S ch em e ( S kim B an tu an L ati h an ) (tr a n sla te d m ea n in g T ra in in g S up port S ch em e) is a s c h em e in w hic h e m plo yers c an f r e ely d ecid e t h e t y p es o f p ro gra m mes f o r s k ill s t r a in in g a n d sk ills u p gra d in g to b e p ro vid ed to th e e m plo yees a n d c la im in g f in an cia l a ssis ta n ce to w ard s th e p ro vis io n o f th e tr a in in g pro gra m mes. H ow ev er, th is sc h em e n eed s prio r ap pro val befo re cla im s can be m ad e. A no th er s c h em e, in w hic h n o p rio r a p pro val is n eed ed , T he PR O LU S (P ro gra m Latih an Y an g D ilu lu sk an ) s c h em e e n ab le s e m plo yers to m ak e c la im s fo r tr a in in g p ro vis io n fo r pro gra m mes pro vid ed by Appro ved T ra in in g P ro vid ers ( A TP). E m plo yers a re a ls o p ro vid ed a ssis ta n ce in te rm s o f t r a in in g n eed s an aly sis , sy ste m atic all y fo rm ula tio n o f t r a in in g p ro gra m mes a n d a n nual p la n s. T hese s c h em es a re : The PL T (P ela n Lati h an Tah u nan ) Sch em e, J u ru p la n Sch em e (C onsu lta n cy Sch em e fo r T ra in in g N eed s A naly sis ) an d SM I T ra in in g N eed s A naly sis C onsu lta n cy S ch em e. T he P L T S ch em e is o nly a o ne o ff e x erc is e to a ssis t e m plo yers . T he J u ru p la n S ch em e i s fo r e m plo yers h av in g m ore th an 2 00 e m plo yee s a n d t h e S M I T ra in in g N eed s A naly sis C onsu lta n cy S ch em e i s fo r sm alle r o rg an is a tio ns w hic h has le ss th an 1 99 e m plo yees. I n a d ditio n, th ere is th e P E R LA S ch em e ( P erja n jia n L ati h an D en gan L atih an ) in w hic h a tr a in in g a g re e m en t w it h se le cte d re g is te re d tr a in in g p ro vid ers is need ed . T his T ra in in g A gre e m en t S ch em e e n ab le s e m plo yers to s e n d em plo yee s fo r sk il ls tr a in in g an d up gra d in g w it h o ut p ay in g th e fu ll a m ount fo r tr a in in g p ro vid ed . T his s c h em e i s a lm ost s im ila r t o t h e S B L P re -A ppro ved S ch em e in w hic h em plo yers can cla im fo r tr a in in g p ro vid ed w it h o ut s u p portin g d ocu m en ts a s re q uir e d b y o th er sc h em es a s th e p ro gra m mes h as b ee n e v alu ate d a n d r e co gnis e d b y S B L P re -A ppro ved P ro gra m me. I n su p portin g org an is a tio ns to pro vid e in -h o use t r a in in g to it s e m plo yees, th e H RD C p ro vid es f u nd s f o r s e tti n g up tr a in in g ro om s an d fa cili tie s an d fo r th e p urc h ase of tr a in in g eq uip m en t nece ssa ry fo r e m plo yees tr a in in g need s. T hese fu nd s are av aila b le t h ro ugh th e sc h em e fo r p urc h asin g tr a in in g e q uip m en t a n d f a cili tie s. A t th e sa m e ti m e, w it h th e str iv e fo r w ork ers ’ k no w le d ge o n IC T th ro ug h th e W ork ers ’ IC T S ch em e ( W IT S), in w hic h e m plo yers a re e n co ura g ed to p ro vid e c o m pute r kno w le d ge am ong w ork ers in an effo rt to i n cre ase th e ex p erti s e an d k no w le d ge o n in fo rm atio n a n d co m munic atio ns te ch no lo gy (IC T), su p port is p ro vid ed fo r th e purc h asin g of co m pute rs fo r th ese e ffo rts . H en ce, in li n e w it h th e G overn m en t’ s c all fo r m ore I C T k no w le d ge w ork ers , s p ecia l f u nd s h av e b een J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 20 se t u p to c arr y o ut th e W ork er’s IC T S ch em e in w hic h e m plo yers are pro vid ed with fu nd s to purc h ase c o m pute rs an d co m pute r-b ase d tr a in in g so ftw are s t h ro ugh C om pute r-B ase d T ra in in g S ch em e (S oftw are D ev elo p m en t) a n d I C T-B ase d T ra in in g S ch em e. T he re tr e n ch ed w ork ers la id -o ff fr o m co m pan y’s s h ut- d o w n d ue to eco no m ic slo w d o w n are als o no t e x clu d ed . T hese w ork ers a re p ro vid ed w it h s u p port fo r t r a in in g to e n han ce a n d e q uip th em w ith h ig her s k ill s to i n cre ase th eir opportu niti e s in se c u rin g new e m plo ym en t. S im ila rly , to th e u nem plo yed S P M s c h o ol l e av ers . T hese u nem plo yed sc h o ol le av ers a re a ssis te d i n obta in in g sk ills to en han ce th eir em plo ym en t o pportu nitie s. T his sc h em e is calle d th e R etr e n ch ed W ork ers an d U nem plo yed T ra in in g S ch em e w it h th e o bje ctiv e o f in cre asin g th e su p ply o f sk ille d w ork ers a n d assis t em plo yers to em plo y w ork ers w it h hig her s k il ls . O n th e oth er le v el, gra d uate s le ft wit h o ut e m plo ym en t are eq uip ped w ith IC T sk ill s as w ell as l a n g uag e s k ills w it h c o m merc ia l v alu e s u ch a s E nglis h l a n g uag e. U nd er th e G ra d uate T ra in in g S ch em e ( G TS), g ra d uate s are tr a in ed an d th eir kno w le d ge an d sk ills u p gra d ed a n d a re p aid a m onth ly a llo w an ce o f R M 500 d urin g t h e p ro gra m me. T he oth er sc h em es pro vid ed by th e H RD C are G ro up or Jo in t- r e la te d sc h em es in whic h se v era l e m plo yers o r a sso cia tio ns c o lla b ora te o r w ork to geth er t o pro vid e gro up tr a in in g to its em plo yees. A ll th e s c h em es p ro vid ed b y th e H RD C a re f in an cia lly a ss is te d b etw ee n 7 5 t o 1 00 p erc en t w it h s o m e s c h em es r e q uir in g t h e n ece ssa ry s u p portin g d ocu m en ts a n d p rio r a p p ro val, w hil s t so m e sc h em es are very str a ig htf o rw ard in th e c la im s pro cess due to th e ap pro ved sta tu s. F in an cia l a ssis ta n ce fo r o vers e as tr a in in g is 5 0 p erc en t a n d 7 5 – 8 0 perc en t fin an cia l assis ta n ce fo r th e purc h ase of t r a in in g e q uip m en t, s e ttin g-u p o f tr a in in g a n d p urc h ase o f C om pute r-A id ed so ftw are . T he ty p es of tr a in in g p ro gra m mes p ro vid ed u nd er th ese s c h em es r a n ges f r o m t e ch n ic al an d cra ft sk ill s , co m pute r-r e la te d sk ill s , r e tr a in in g an d up gra d in g sk ill s , ap pre n tic esh ip an d i n d ustr ia l a u to m atio n fo r w ork ers in th e m an u fa ctu rin g i n d ustr ie s a n d s e rv ic es s e cto r. T here are more th an 2,0 00 tr a in in g pro vid ers e sta b lis h ed in M ala y sia to p ro vid e c o nsu lta n cy s e rv ic e s a n d tr a in in g to w ork ers . H ow ev er, und er th e ab ove s c h em es, only re g is te re d pro vid ers are allo w ed to p artic ip ate . O ut o f t h e m an y t r a in in g p ro vid ers a v aila b le i n M ala y sia , o nly ab out 5 00 are re g is te re d p ro vid ers a n d o nly a b out 2 0 p erc en t h av e th e A ppro ved T ra in in g P ro gra m me S ta tu s[ 8 ] . T ra in in g C en tr es: In te rm s of tr a in in g ce n tr e s, th e G overn m en t h as s u p porte d th e d ev elo p m en t o f s e v era l f a cilit ie s fo r tr a in in g an d sk ills dev elo p m en t. As m en tio ned earlie r, th e Govern m en t has accre d ite d a lm ost tw o th o usa n d tr a in in g p ro vid ers a n d in stit u tio ns. F or in sta n ce, th e FM M In stit u te of M an ufa ctu rin g ( F M M-I M ) w as in co rp ora te d in 1 999 as an effo rt to e x p an d a n d fo cu s o n tr a in in g fu nctio ns, p artic u la rly in t h e m an ufa ctu rin g s e cto r. T he o bje ctiv e o f th e in sti tu te i s to d ev elo p th e p ote n tia ls an d e n han ce th e sk ills o f e v ery e m plo yee a t e v ery le v el in t h e in d ustr y . T his is to c re ate a pool of tr a in ed m an p o w er in all asp ects of i n d ustr ia l s k ill s a n d m an ag em en t c ap ab ilitie s t o f a ce t h e c h alle n ges a s th e c o untr y m oves in to th e sta tu s o f a n i n d ustr ia lis e d n atio n. F M M -I M is a re g is te re d tr a in in g p ro vid er with HRD C an d it en su re s th at all it s p ro gra m mes co m ply wit h th e re q uir e m en ts of th e C ouncil to b e e li g ib le fo r tr a in in g g ra n ts u nd er H RD F. A la rg e n u m ber o f th e p ro gra m mes h av e b ee n a w ard ed t h e A TP sta tu s a n d a ls o se le cte d to p artic ip ate in th e P E R LA s c h em e. A no th er o rg an iz atio n p ro vid in g tr a in in g fa cili tie s t o all priv ate se cto rs is th e N atio nal Pro ducti v it y C orp ora tio n (N PC ) w hic h w as esta b li s h ed und er th e M in is tr y o f I n te rn atio nal T ra d e a n d I n d ustr y to a ssu m e a n im porta n t ro le in th e e n han ce m en t o f p ro ductiv ity a n d q ualit y o f th e c o untr y to w ard s a ch ie v in g a h ig her n atio nal eco no m ic gro w th . N PC co re fu n ctio ns are p ro ductiv it y an d qualit y re se arc h , tr a in in g an d m an ag em en t sy ste m dev elo pm en t, pro ductiv ity an d q ualit y p ro m otio n a n d b en ch m ark in g se rv ic e. B esid es p ro vid in g th ese se rv ic e s, NPC als o pro vid es p ro fe ssio nal co nsu lta n cy an d tr a in in g in th e are as o f p ro ductiv it y a n d q ualit y . I n a d ditio n, th ere a re o th er in stit u tio ns e sta b li s h ed b y th e G overn m en t to p ro vid e th e fa cilit ie s f o r tr a in in g a n d sk ill s up gra d in g. In th e SM Is , SM ID EC has a p poin te d 1 0 s k ills d ev elo p m en t in stit u tio ns to p ro vid e t e ch n ic al sk ill s tr a in in g in th e S M Is . A nd und er th e A gre e m en t betw ee n SM ID EC an d th e in stitu tio ns, S M ID EC w ill fin an ce 5 0 p erc en t o f th e tr a in in g fe es u nd erta k en by th e SM Is . O th er in sti tu tio ns in clu d e I n d ustr ia l Tra in in g In stit u te (IT I) whic h pro vid es f o rm al te c h nic al tr a in in g fo r w ork ers in th e in d ustr ia l s e cto r an d C en tr e fo r In str u cto r an d A dvan ced S kill T ra in in g (C IA ST ) to pro vid e tr a in in g fo r vo catio nal i n str u cto rs . The in d iv id ual o rg an is a tio n i s e x p ecte d to e sta b lis h i ts o w n tr a in in g c en tr e w ith th e s u p port p ro vid ed u nd er t h e s e ttin g u p o f tr a in in g c en tr e o r ro om a n d fa cilitie s. H ow ev er, o nly th e la rg er o rg an iz atio ns s u ch a s P ro to n J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 21 an d P ero dua w hic h is a G overn m en t L in ked C om pan y ( G LC ) an d mult in atio nals su ch as Pan aso nic an d S am su ng, as well as th e ho sp ita lit y an d se rv ic e s i n d ustr ie s has its ow n tr a in in g ce n tr e s. N oneth ele ss, t h ere a re so m e lo call y o w ned c o m pan ie s th at h av e its o w n tr a in in g cen tr e . A nd in th ese tr a in in g cen tr e s, e m plo yers ca n org an is e th eir ow n in -h o use tr a in in g p ro gra m mes f o r i ts e m plo yees O th er th an th e in d iv id uall y o w ned tr a in in g c e n tr e s b y th e o rg an is a tio ns, e m plo yers can o rg an is e tr a in in g p ro gra m mes an d utilis e th e cen tr e an d fa cilitie s p ro vid ed b y p riv ate tr a in in g p ro vid ers . A s m en tio ned a b ove, th ere are m ore th an 500 re g is te re d tr a in in g p ro vid ers u nd er H RD C a n d a ls o p oly te c h nic s th at c a n b e u tilis e d u nd er th e T im e S ecto r P riv atis a tio n (T SP) p ro gra m me. T he T SP pro gra m me allo w s p riv ate an d p ub lic co m pan ie s to uti lis e th e tr a in in g fa cilit ie s a v aila b le a t t h e p oly te ch nic s t o u p gra d e th e s k ill s o f th e w ork ers . I n a d ditio n to te c h nic al tr a in in g, th e p riv ate s e cto r i s a ls o s u p porte d in te rm s o f p ro vid in g tr a in in g in th e a re as of sa fe ty an d healt h . T he N VTC su p ports th e m an ufa ctu rin g s e cto r in te ch nic al s k ill s tr a in in g, w hils t t h e Natio nal In stit u te of Occu p atio nal Safe ty an d H ealth (N IO SH ) su p ports in te rm s of pro vid in g c o nsu lta n cy , tr a in in g, in fo rm atio n dis se m in atio n an d r e se arc h in th e a re as o f o ccu p atio nal s a fe ty a n d h ealt h . N IO SH , e sta b li s h ed b y th e G overn m en t in D ece m ber, 1 992 is to e n su re th at o rg an is a tio ns i n M ala y sia o pera te i n a s a fe a n d h ealth y w ork in g e n vir o nm en t. T he B oard o f D ir e cto rs of N IO SH co m pris e s of te n m em bers a p poin te d by th e G overn m en t, w hile th e re m ain in g m em bers are ele cte d m em bers durin g th e Annual G en era l M eetin g w hic h m ak es N IO SH d if fe re n t fr o m s im ila r i n stit u tio ns i n o th er c o untr ie s[ 1 0] . CO NCLU SIO N T he p rio rity o f th e g o vern m en t w it h th e p la n s in p la ce an d th e o bje ctiv e in m in d h av e g iv en in cre ase a ccessib ilit y to qualit y ed ucatio n an d tr a in in g in s tr e n gth en in g th e hu m an cap ita l to su p port th e d ev elo p m en t o f k -e co no m y. T he tr a n sfo rm atio n o f th e e co no m y d em an d s f o r t e ch no lo gic al s k ills a n d e x p ertis e a s w ell a s la b our fo rc e e q uip ped w ith ta cit k no w le d ge a n d a hig h le v el of th in kin g sk ill. H en ce, num ero us e ffo rts h av e b een m ad e b y th e G overn m en t to e n su re t h at e d ucatio n a n d tr a in in g sy ste m h as th e c ap acit y to e n han ce th e q ualit y o f in te ll e ctu al cap ita l as w ell as e x p an d h um an c ap ita l. W ith th e im ple m en ta tio n o f th e b ro ad p olic ie s o f t h e c o untr y , p olic ie s fr o m th e M in is tr y re sp onsib le fo r h u m an r e so urc es a n d H RD a n d th e le g is la tio n a v aila b le t o su p port kno w le d ge an d sk ill s dev elo p m en t of th e w ork fo rc e is a d riv in g fo rc e to s u p port a n d e n co ura g e t h e e m plo yers in th e p riv ate se cto r to p ro vid e tr a in in g a n d d ev elo p m en t t o i ts w ork ers . M ore o ver, th e G overn m en t h as e sta b lis h ed s e v era l b odie s to o vers e e th e a d m in is tr a tio n a n d p ro m otio n o f H RD acti v itie s. For in sta n ce, th e H RD C ouncil is r e sp onsib le fo r th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f fu nd s c o ntr ib ute d b y e m plo yers fo r w ork ers ’ tr a in in g, a n d th e N VTC is r e sp onsib le fo r pro m otin g an d dev elo pm en t of sk ill s t r a in in g. H ow ev er, th e N VTC h as its o w n a llo catio n o f f u nd s fr o m th e co untr y ’s bud get to pro m ote th e d ev elo p m en t o f t e ch no lo gic al a n d s k ills t r a in in g. T he HRD sy ste m in M ala y sia has dif fe re n t c ate g o rie s o f tr a in in g a n d e d ucatio n. F ir s t, is th e f o rm al a cad em ic ed ucatio n obta in ed fr o m th e un iv ers itie s, c o lle g es a n d o th er s im ila r in stitu tio ns. S eco nd ly , is th e f o rm al tr a in in g an d ed ucatio n fr o m th e te c h n ic al an d v o catio nal in sti tu tio ns o bta in ed fr o m p oly te ch nic s all o ver th e c o untr y . A nd fin all y , fo r w ork in g in d iv id uals , t h ere are in fo rm al tr a in in g a n d d ev elo p m en t o bta in ed f r o m t h e v ario us p ro gra m mes o ffe re d b y t h e w ork p la ce. M ore o ver, th e v ario us tr a in in g sc h em es a n d H RD F und s, sk il ls d ev elo p m en t fu nd s av aila b le o nly to all m an ufa ctu rin g a n d s o m e s e rv ic e in d ustr ie s ir re le v an t o f t h eir s iz es a n d in d ustr ie s, th is f in an cia l a ssis ta n ce is n o t a n ex cu se fo r th e co m pan ie s in no t pro vid in g th e w ork ers w ith kno w le d ge an d sk ills need ed by th e i n d ustr ie s. I n co nclu sio n, th e Govern m en t has su p porte d s e v era l in stit u tio ns in p ro vid in g tr a in in g fa cilitie s fo r t h e p riv ate s e cto r s u ch a s F M M-I M , N PC , IT I a n d th e p oly te c h nic s. E m plo yers can utilis e th e fa c il itie s an d s e rv ic es offe re d by th ese re g is te re d an d ap pro ved H RD C in stitu tio ns. Oth er th an uti lis in g ex te rn al t r a in in g c e n tr e s, in d iv id uall y o w ned tr a in in g c e n tr e s in s u p portin g em plo yees’ tr a in in g an d dev elo pm en t are v ery li m ite d , wit h th e ex cep tio n fo r th e la rg er c o rp ora tio ns an d so m e sm alle r org an is a tio ns. O th erw is e , tr a in in g a n d d ev elo pm en t f o r e m plo yees a re o uts o urc ed t o p riv ate t r a in in g p ro vid ers h av in g f a cil itie s f o r t r a in in g. I m plic a tio n s: The ro le an d fu nctio n of HRD is i n cre asin g ly vita l at th e org an iz atio nal an d natio nal l e v el a s w ell a s in th e g lo bal c o nte x t. R ese a rc h in g a n d s tu d yin g H RD in M ala y sia is c h alle n ged b y th e la ck o f e m pir ic al stu d ie s in th e fie ld of H RD . H en ce, in u nd ers ta n d in g M ala y sia n natio nal str a te g ie s to w ard s H RD , w ill assis t acad em ic ia n s an d re se arc h ers w ith l ite ra tu re a n d fu rth er r e se arc h to a d d ju stic e to th e la ck J. S ocia l S ci., 3 (4 ): 2 13-2 22 , 2 0 07 2 22 of em pir ic al lite ra tu re in M ala y sia as w ell as in th e A sia -P acif ic r e g io n. L im it a tio n s: T he f ir s t li m ita ti o n in th is p ap er is m ain ly c o nfin ed to th e p riv ate se cto r in M ala y sia a n d it w as j u stif ie d in th e s e le ctio n fo r th is s e cto r, th u s, it c an no t b e gen era lis e d to oth er se cto r oth er th an th e priv ate s e cto r. A s th is p ap er w as w rit te n b ase d o n r e v ie w in g o f G overn m en ta l re p orts a n d d ocu m en ts , th e in fo rm atio n o bta in ed are assu m ed to be re lia b le an d valid to r e p re se n t a n d g en era lis e d fo r th e p riv ate se cto r e x cep t s p ecif ie d i n s o m e o f t h e c o nte x t. T he se co nd li m ita tio n is re la te d to th e re se arc h m eth o ds. A gain a s m en tio ned a b ove, s in ce th is p ap er is a re v ie w o f d ocu m en ts , th is p ap er is m ain ly a re v ie w a n d it aim s to ex am in e th e H RD str a te g ie s, pla n s, p olic ie s, ro le s a n d re sp onsib il itie s fo r n atio nal H RD in M ala y sia . T he li m ita tio n is th at fin d in g s in th is p ap er m ig ht n o t b e e x hau sti v e a n d r ig o ro us. REFE R EN C ES 1 . Mala y sia , Eco no m ic Pla n nin g Unit, 2001. E co no m ic P la n n in g U nit R ep ort. P rim e M in is te r’s D ep artm en t. K uala L um pur 2 . Mala y sia , Govern m en t, 2001a. The Eig h th M ala y sia Pla n , 2001-2 005. Natio nal Prin tin g D ep artm en t. K uala L um pur 3 . Mala y sia , New Str a its Tim es, 200 5. Nin th M ala y sia P la n th ru st o n h um an c ap ita l. R etr ie v ed 2 006, fr o m http :// w ww.n st.c o m .m y/C urre n t_ new s/N ST /F rid ay / N atio nal/N ST 3223 249 2.t x t/A rtic le /in d ex b _htm l. 0 4/0 2/2 0 05 . 4 . Mala y sia , Govern m en t 1991. Seco nd Outli n e P ers p ectiv e Pla n , 199 1-2 000 . N atio nal Prin tin g D ep artm en t. K uala L um pur 5 . Mala y sia , Min is tr y of Fin an ce 20 01. The E co no m ic R ep ort 1 999-2 000 . K uala L um pur 6 . Mala y sia , Govern m en t 2001b. Thir d Outlin e P ers p ectiv e Pla n , 200 1-2 010 . N atio nal Prin tin g D ep artm en t. K uala L um pur 7 . Mala y sia , M in is tr y of H um an Reso urc es 2004 M in is tr y of H um an R eso urc es. R etr ie v ed 2004, f r o m http :// w ww.h rd net.c o m .m y/u cap an m en te ri2 1_09- 04bi.h tm l . K uala L um pur 8 . Mala y sia , M in is tr y of H um an Reso urc es 2002 T ra in in g G uid e M ala y sia . (5 t h e d ) K uala L um pur, C halle n ger C oncep t 9 . Mala y sia , M in is tr y o f E ducatio n 2 001) E ducatio n G uid e Mala y sia (7 t h ed ). Kuala Lum pur. C halle n ger C oncep t 1 0. M ala y sia , NIO SH , 2002 Natio nal In stitu te of O ccu p atio nal Safe ty an d H ealth Corp ora te an d T ra in in g I n fo . K uala L um pur

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