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You will write a research paper in APA style on a DSM-5 psychological disorder from the course that you are interested in learning more about. Make sure that it is one SPECIFIC disorder from DSM-5 (e.g. major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc) and not a general condition or category of disorders (e.g. depression, bipolar, anxiety, eating disorders). The purpose of the paper is to show that you have adequately researched and understand the disorder, in the areas specified below, using the textbook(s) and other academic material. The research paper will assess how well you can conceptualize, integrate, and apply the information learned in this course.
Part A (15%)
Part A of your paper should include an introduction outlining the topic and the content of the paper, as well as information on etiology of the disorder, DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, and potential for impairment. Use subheadings to denote different sections of the paper.
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Part B (15%)
Part B of your paper should include potential treatment methodologies, typical duration of treatment, efficacy of treatments, as well as a conclusion summarizing the main points of the paper. Use subheadings to denote different sections of the paper.
Each of PART A and PART B of the paper should be a maximum of 1000 words (NOT including references but INCLUDING in-text citations). This means that Part A should not exceed 1000 words and Part B should not exceed 1000 words, respectively. Any information that goes beyond this limit will not be read or marked
part a has already been done i need part b for same topic major depresive disorder
You will write a research paper in APA style on a DSM-5 psychological disorder from the course that you are interested in learning more about. Make sure that it is one SPECIFIC disorder from DSM-5 (e.
Major Depressive Disorder Student Name Department and Institution Name Course Title and Course Name Instructor Name Due Date Major Depressive Disorder Introduction In 2008, the World Health Organization rated major depressive disorder as the third leading cause of the global disease burden. By 2030, this disorder is expected to be ranked as the leading cause of disease burden. Major depressive disorder is incapacitating disorder characterized by low mood, diminished interest, impaired cognitive function, vegetative symptoms, and disturbed sleep or appetite. According to research conducted by Canadian and North American medical authorities, depression costs the North American economy approximately $60 billion annually, with less than that amount lost to lost productivity. MDD is one of the most prevalent mental disorders and one of the most disabling. This paper examines Major Depressive Disorder’s etiology, diagnostic criteria, and impairment. MDD Prevalence Major depressive disorder is a genuine, severe disorder that involves biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral changes that normally impair a person’s functioning in all areas of life (Hasin et al., 2018). In Canada, the prevalence of MDD affects approximately 1.45 million individuals or approximately 5 percent of the total population. MDD is the fourth leading cause of disability and is projected to be the second leading cause by 2020; it has a greater impact on public health than somatic conditions such as coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. On average, the onset of major depressive disorder occurs in the mid-twenties, but the condition is increasingly recognized as affecting children and adolescents. Etiology of MDD The etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is considered multifactorial, indicating that it can be attributed to biological, genetic, environmental, and psychosocial factors. Earlier studies linked MDD to neurotransmitter abnormalities, specifically serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (Bains & Abdijadid, 2022). Antidepressants such as selective serotonin receptor inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine receptor inhibitors, and dopamine-norepinephrine receptor inhibitors have demonstrated this in treating depression (Bains & Abdijadid, 2022). Bains & Abdijadid, (2022) study indicates that Low levels of serotonin metabolites have been found in individuals with suicidal ideation. Current research indicates that a connection exists between the neuroregulatory system and neural circuits, resulting in secondary neurotransmitter system disruption. GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and glutamate and glycine, both main excitatory neurotransmitters, play a significant role in the etiology of depression (Bains & Abdijadid, 2022). According to studies, persons with depression have a lower plasma, CSF, and brain GABA levels. Also implicated in the etiology of mood disorders are thyroid and growth hormone abnormalities. According to Bains & Abdijadid, (2022), multiple childhood experiences and trauma are associated with the development of depression later in life. Severe early stress causes significant changes in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses, which can result in structural changes in the cerebral cortex that contribute to severe depression later in life. Genetic factors are still associated with MDD. For an individual to succumb to stress, a familial history of depression, poor relationships with early caregivers or particular personality patterns are leading cause of depression. Moreover, life events and personality traits have been demonstrated to play a significant role in depression. In contrast, cognitive theory demonstrates that cognitive distortion increases a person’s susceptibility to depression. Diagnostic Criteria The diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder include the presence of five or more of the following symptoms for at least two weeks. A patient must present a change in functioning and demonstrate at least one of the following symptoms, including a depressed mood or showing loss of interest or pleasure (Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives. 2018). First, patient symptoms may include a depressed mood for most of the day, nearly daily. These symptoms may include sadness, emptiness, hopelessness, tearfulness, and irritability in children and adolescents. Second, the patient must demonstrate a diminished desire for pleasurable activities almost daily. Third, a patient may experience significant weight loss despite not restricting or gaining weight nearly every day. The patient may lose approximately 5 percent of their body weight, and their appetite may increase or decrease nearly daily. Fourth, the client almost each daily may exhibit insomnia or hypersomnia (Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives. 2018). Fifth, the client must exhibit psychomotor agitation or retardation, such as feelings of restlessness or being slowed down on daily basis (Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives. 2018). Sixth, the client must present almost on daily basis fatigue or loss of vitality. Seventh, the client must present almost on daily basis feeling empty, excessive, or inappropriately guilty (Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives. 2018). Eight, the client must present nearly on daily basis a decline in the ability to concentrate and think, a behavior that others can observe. Ninth, the client must present repeated suicidal ideation without specific plans, or reported suicide attempts nearly every day. The symptoms are expected to have caused significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning to meet criterion B. The presented symptoms must not be well described by another mental disorder, such as substance misuse, medication, or other mental disorders (Dozois, 2014). For a patient to be diagnosed with a major depressive disorder, he or she must exhibit five or more of the outlined five symptoms. The symptoms determine whether a patient has the condition, as other disorders may present identical symptoms (Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives. 2018). However, according to DSM-V TR, the decision to diagnose MDD depends on how frequently the symptoms are observed and how many symptoms meet criteria A to D. Potential for Impairment MDD significantly impairs a person’s functioning in various areas of life, with emotional well-being being one of these areas. Individuals with MDD experience feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness and a loss of interest and pleasure in activities they once enjoyed engaging in. Still, MDD impairs attention, concentration, and memory, making it challenging for individual to focus on a task, makes decisions, and recall information. MDD can lead to social withdrawal, decreased communication, and difficulty sustaining intimate relationships further interfering with family and individual social interactions. MDD still impact occupational functioning, resulting in decreased productivity and absenteeism. MDD has a negative effect on academic performance in infants and adolescents. References Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives. (2018). Canada: Pearson Education Canada. 6th edition Bains, N., & Abdijadid, S. (2022). Major depressive disorder. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. Dozois, D. J. A. (2014). Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives, DSM-5 Update Edition, Loose Leaf Version. Canada: Pearson Education Canada. Hasin, D. S., Sarvet, A. L., Meyers, J. L., Saha, T. D., Ruan, W. J., Stohl, M., & Grant, B. F. (2018). Epidemiology of adult DSM-5 major depressive disorder and its specifiers in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(4), 336-346.. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4602